This can be Low-level (LLD) which kills vegetative bacteria
, and some fungi and viruses or Intermediate level that kills vegetative bacteria
, mycobacteria, viruses and most fungi, or high level (HLD) that kills all microorganisms except bacterial endospores.
In particular, evaporators provide ideal growth conditions for biofilms formed by vegetative bacteria
, and after a maturing period of ~10 hours those biofilms begin to contaminate the milk they contact for the remainder of the evaporator production run.
There was no statistical difference in the amount of vegetative bacteria
left in the OR after the 2 and 10-minute run-times, which led to the conclusion that running a 2-minute cycle at the head of the surgical table in between cases makes between-case cleaning in the OR a viable option and something hospitals should consider operationalizing within their protocol.
When conditions are suitable spores germinate and transform into active vegetative bacteria
, namely in alkaline surroundings with access to water and a food source.
When the scientists conducted microfiltration under optimal conditions, they were able to very efficiently remove vegetative bacteria
, spores and somatic cells, as well as achieve the near complete transmission of proteins into the microfiltered milk.
For example, when compared to other microorganisms, enveloped viruses and vegetative bacteria
such as Staphylococcus and Micrococcus, which are commonly isolated in cleanroom operations, are easily killed and inactivated by most antimicrobial chemistries, such as quaternary ammonium compounds, phenolic disinfectants and alcohols.
(10) Taking these into consideration we had designed the efficacy study for contact time starting from 30 seconds and upto 20 minutes for vegetative bacteria
; and spores being more resistant intrinsically, efficacy tests were performed for upto 2 hours contact time.
In conclusion, vegetative bacteria
, as well as, moulds and viruses, are readily destroyed during baking, but post-baking contamination from air, equipment and handlers can occur .
Per the USP General Chapter <1072> Disinfectants, the test system is inoculated with sufficient inoculum to demonstrate at least a two log10 reduction for bacterial spores and a three log10 reduction for vegetative bacteria
and allowed to dry.
This group of disinfectants is effective in destroying many harmful organisms including vegetative bacteria
(bacteria in the actively growing state), mycobacterium, bacterial spores, enveloped viruses, non-enveloped viruses and fungi.
The spores that exist, even after the death of the bacteria itself, are viable and germinate into vegetative bacteria
while in the intestine (Bobulusky et al., 2008).