The consequences of PKC activation are the imbalance between NO/ET-1 ratio, with the consequent predominant vasoconstrictive
response and the activation of NF-[kappa]B with the increased proinflammatory gene expression .
Bleeding was controlled using vasoconstrictive
spray and nasal packing.
Treatment of acute monocular vision loss related to vasospasm includes prompt treatment with calcium channel blockers, which improves blood flow by reducing the vasoconstrictive
effects of ET-1 .
Otherwise, a reduced peripheral vasoconstrictive
response to adrenergic stimuli is likely to contribute to orthostatic tolerance and to an increase in heat dissipation.
It is thought to be multifactorial, resulting from a combination of an increase in vasoconstrictive
factors (endothelin and thromboxane), activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, reduction of vasodilator factors (nitric oxide and prostacyclin), and formation of free radicals.
Reduction of the length density and diameter indicates angioinhibitory and vasoconstrictive
actions in 12 and 21 days post-wounding.
In addition to its vasoconstrictive
property, UII can also cause vasodilation effect in small resistant arteries .
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoconstrictive
hormone and a key component of the renin-angiotensin system, which regulates vascular tone and blood pressure.
The resulting peripheral vasoconstrictive
response was also surprisingly brief.
In the vascular system, [A.sub.1]AR mediates the vasoconstrictive
effect of adenosine in vascular beds [55, 56].
Causes include traumatic perforation, inflammatory or collagen vascular diseases, infections, overuse of vasoconstrictive
medications, and malignancy.
Theories regarding propranolol's mechanism of action include an initial capillary vasoconstrictive
effect, suppression/blockade of growth factors with induction of apoptosis of endothelial cells and blockade of GLUT1 receptors.