Vasodilators and vasoactive substances
for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
From these terminals, vasoactive substances
are released to cause "indirect" vasodilation in a skin region which is surrounding the region of iontophoresis.
Therefore, two explanations may be suggested to explain our results: (a) the longer physical exercise duration was sufficient to increase the vasoactive substance
concentration (e.g., which has high release threshold) and/or enable/disable nervous system that can influence Q and PVR, causing SBP and DBP to decrease; and (b) the longer physical exercise duration was able to elicit an increase in other vasoactive substances
and/or enable/disable nervous system, thus leading to a simultaneous biological activity of blood pressure controls.
Regardless of the etiological factor involved, the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the progression of renal disease are the same and include abnormal glomerular hemodynamics (intraglomerular hypertension and glomerular hyperfiltration), hypoxia, proteinuria, and effects of various vasoactive substances
It is likely that varied membrane receptors expressed on mast cells are selectively triggered by ligands such as IgG, peptides, microbial derivatives, and fragments of activated complement  and mast cells are stimulated by activating signals to synthesize vasoactive substances
including lipid metabolites, cytokines, and chemokines [40, 41].
(3) The third mechanism involved in this hypomotility is the role of the different vasoactive substances
, such as histamine, tyramine, and tryptamine, which are produced in the rumen by decarboxylation of histidine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, respectively.
It is useful where aspirin and clopidogrel have not been effective, it is thought to suppress cyclic adenosine monophosphate degradation, leading to inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation, and preventing the release of prothrombotic, inflammatory and vasoactive substances
. Studies have shown that patients using this drug have increased walking distances by 106 metres over a placebo, with time to initial pain also extended (Doctors Guide 1999).
Most of the symptoms can be attributed to the release of vasoactive substances
and other inflammatory mediators and include flushing, hypotension, dyspepsia, diarrhea, abdominal pain, or musculoskeletal pain.
These effects have been evaluated and recent studies in sedentary subjects, or those with neurological lesions, suggest that increased motor activity (exercise/physical activity) performed at moderate intensities and on a regular basis could have beneficial effects on vascular function, given that activation of the large muscle groups favors the increase of blood flow during their performance, which leads to increased friction on the vascular endothelium and, therefore, greater release of vasoactive substances
, generating greater vascular dilation.
All the results indicate that TFY has an effective therapeutical action on migraine, which may be related to three aspects as following: firstly, adjusting the level of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and vasoactive substances
, relieving neurogenic inflammation; secondly, improving vasomotion, increase cerebral blood flow, then improving hemorheology; finally, increasing pain threshold, relieving or preventing headache.
PFCs have been studied for delivering antibiotics, anaesthetics and vasoactive substances
derived from the vascular endothelium including nitric oxide (NO), adenosine and eicosanoids may be implicated as early mechanisms in this response.