vascular endothelium


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vascular endothelium

The simple squamous epithelial tissue lining the blood vessels. It is a semipermeable barrier between the blood and the vascular smooth muscle, produces vasodilator chemicals, and may inhibit vasoconstrictor substances. Damage to the endothelium leads to increased production of prostaglandins and stimulates blood clotting.
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Specifically, nicotine concentrations in hair were dramatically negatively interrelated with total antioxidant capacity levels of HDL and EPCs, after controlling for body mass index, age, sex, education, and consumption patterns.[62] Moreover, nicotine exposure during adolescence is disadvantageous to the vascular endothelium simply because intercellular adhesion molecule 1 is a biomarker for endothelial excitation and stress after damage to the endothelium.[63]
The vascular endothelium regulates the flow of molecules from the blood stream to tissues, and is the prime victim of the oxidative stress playing critical role in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular disorders.
However, Dll4 is expressed not only in "tip" and stalk cells during active angiogenesis, it is also expressed at particularly high levels in the vascular endothelium of mature arteries and arterioles, and to a lesser extent in capillaries, but not veins [15,33] (Figure 3).
They used the vascular endothelium growth factor, blood vessel density, and myocardial infarct size as the outcome measures for evaluation.
showed that Samul-Tang (Si-Wu-Tang, SMT) protects vascular endothelium from inflammation and might be used as a promising vascular protective drug.
In the intima layer, the vascular endothelium lines all vessels.
Its virulence is attributed to its ability to evade the human immune system, by modifying the host red blood cell surface to adhere to the vascular endothelium and to undergo antigenic variation.
These pigs were killed 3 months after the surgery, and their vascular endothelium was studied using an electronic microscope.
Care was taken during the complete procedure to ensure the integrity of the vascular endothelium. For experiments with endothelium-denuded aortic rings, the endothelium was removed by gently rubbing the intimal surface of the vessels.
In the absence of vascular endothelium, the vasorelaxant potency from Hex-Sc in WKY was significantly increased (** p < 0.01) when compared to SHR (Table 1).
In general, NO is generated by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) located in the vascular endothelium, nitrinergic nerves and macrophages in endothelium (Furchgott and Zawadzki, 1980; Griffith et al., 1984; Toda and Okamura, 2003; Donald and Broughton, 2005), and its production is coupled with stimulation by the Ach-NOS-NO-relaxation pathway.

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