Abbreviations EC epicatechin ECG epicatechin gallate ECC epigallocatechin EGCG epigallocatechin-3-gallate eNOS endothelial nitric oxide synthase HO-1 heme oxygenase-1 ICAM1 intercellular adhesion molecule-1 JNK c-Jun N-terminal kinase HUVEC human umbilical vein endothelial cells 3-MA 3-Methyladenine MCP1 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 NO nitric oxide PAI-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 ROS reactive oxygen species TNF-[alpha] tumor necrosis factor alpha VCAM1 vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
VEGF vascular endothelial growth factor vWF von Willebrand factor
1] integrin binding to the inducible endothelial cell glycoprotein, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1) (31, 41).
Flaxseed oil decreases soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
but has no effect on soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble E-selectin, and monocyte colony-stimulating factor.
Other genes relate to environmental risk factors, such as vitamin D, and the targets of MS therapies, including natalizumab (the gene for vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
, VCAMl) and daclizumab (the gene for IL-2-receptor-alpha, IL2RA).
Key words: Restenosis, stenting, inflammation, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
, intercellular adhesion molecule-1
It was found that smoking cessation resulted in significant reductions in circulating tumour necrosis factor (TNF), soluble TNF receptors I and II, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
CAL also increased the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1).
Wilkinson LS, Edwards JC, Poston RN, et al: Expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
in normal and inflamed synovium.
Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1) expression in aortic arches was non-detectable in the olive-oil--fed mice but was highly expressed in the presence of PCB-77.
Reduction of oxidative stress by oral N-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment decreases plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
concentrations in non-obese, non-dyslipideaemic, normotensive, patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes.
Patent 5,514,788, also contains claims to over 40 other antisense compounds targeted to several human cell adhesion molecules, including ICAM-1, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1, also known as E-selectin) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
Ros notes, "Compared with the Mediterranean diet, the walnut diet increased endothelium-dependent vasodilation by 64 percent and reduced levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
by 20 percent.