However, increasing evidence suggests that they may be related, and there is growing evidence suggesting significant roles for potential microvascular biomarkers such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1) for AD (4, 5).
CMV-infected endothelial cells also facilitate the migration of leukocytes into the blood vessel wall with the expression of adhesion molecules like intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
Duranyildiz, "Clinical significance of serumepithelial cell adhesion molecule (EPCAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1) levels in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer," Tumor Biology, vol.
And by doing these, it increases intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1) in endothelial cells of tumor .
Soluble forms of these molecules such as E-selectin (sE-selectin), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(sVCAM-1) are released and may reflect overexpression of their respective membrane-bound forms .
For example, treatment with adalimumab significantly reduced the adhesion of human leukocytes to endothelial cells and the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and E-selectin .
Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1), and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) are important factors involved in vascular construction, vascular remodeling, and inflammation.
In the serum and plasma of patients with thalassemia, in vitro studies showed that there are elevated levels of endothelial adhesion proteins (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], E-selectin [ELAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
[VCAM-1], von Willebrand factor [VWF], and thrombomodulin) [14, 15].
Alpers, "Neovascular expression of E-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
in human atherosclerosis and their relation to intimal leukocyte content," Circulation, vol.
Importantly, these cells often upregulate the expression of adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(V-CAM-1), which in turn can recruit monocytes and lymphocytes to the atherosclerotic lesion (Rudijanto 2007).
VEGF enhances the adhesion of leukocytes to vascular walls and increases ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
(VCAM-1) expression in the brain and retina .
Increased soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
plasma levels and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 during antiretroviral therapy interruption and retention of elevated soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 levels following resumption of antiretroviral therapy.