The search items/MeSH terms included local anesthesia, methods, lignocaine, EMLA, buffering, ethyl chloride, pain measurement, vapocoolant
spray and injection pain prevention/control.
The downside of using vapocoolant
is the rare, but considerable risk of freezing the skin when the application time exceeds 15 seconds (Mawhorter et al.
spray vs Lidocaine/ Prilocaine cream for reducing the pain of venipuncture in hemodialysis patients: A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study.
There are various methods of ice application such as ice pack, cold pack, cold water immersion, ice massage, vapocoolant
Reassurance, masticatory and neck muscle exercises, vapocoolant
sprays, local anaesthetic injection of muscle trigger points, low doses of oral amitriptyline, diazepam, occlusal mouth splints and relaxation are all possible treatments.
Because ice and vapocoolant
spray provide only brief anesthesia and can be frightening or initially bothersome, some sources do not recommend either.
spray for immunization pain requires seconds to apply and has been shown to be as effective as EMLA.
sprays are effective and inexpensive but can be frightening or initially bothersome.
Some methods have been found ineffective, including vapocoolants
and ice packs in children under three.
Effects of vapocoolants
on passive hip flexion in healthy subjects.