vancomycin


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vancomycin

 [van″ko-mi´sin]
an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces orientalis, highly effective against gram-positive bacteria, especially against staphylococci; it is used as the hydrochloride salt. It is administered intravenously in the treatment of severe staphylococcal infections resistant to other antibiotics and is administered orally in the treatment of staphylococcal enterocolitis and antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous enterocolitis caused by Clostridium difficile. Toxic effects may be severe and include damage to the eighth cranial (vestibulocochlear) nerve and renal disorders.

van·co·my·cin

(van'kō-mī'sin),
An antibiotic isolated from cultures of Nocardia orientalis, bactericidal against gram-positive organisms; available as the hydrochloride.

vancomycin

/van·co·my·cin/ (van″ko-mi´sin) an antibiotic produced by Streptomyces orientalis, highly effective against gram-positive bacteria, especially against staphylococci; used as the hydrochloride salt.

vancomycin

(văng′kə-mī′sĭn, văn′kə-)
n.
An antibiotic, C66H75Cl2N9O24, obtained from the actinomycete Amycolatopsis orientalis (formerly Streptomyces orientalis), used usually in the form of its hydrochloride to treat infections with staphylococci and other gram-positive bacteria.

vancomycin

[van′kōmī′sin]
an antibiotic.
indications It is prescribed in the treatment of infections, particularly staphylococcal infections resistant to other antibiotics and antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis caused by Clostridium difficile.
contraindications Concomitant administration of neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, or ototoxic drugs or known hypersensitivity to this drug prohibits its use.
adverse effects Among the more serious adverse effects are anaphylaxis, dizziness, and tinnitus.

vancomycin

A glycopeptide antibiotic effective against coccal bacteria, especially in recalcitrant staphylococcal infections–eg, MRSA, unresponsive to penicillins or cephalosporins Adverse effects Ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity

van·co·my·cin

(van'kō-mī'sin)
An antibiotic isolated from cultures of Nocardia orientalis, bactericidal against gram-positive organisms; available as the hydrochloride.

vancomycin

An antibiotic drug effective against many GRAM POSITIVE bacteria. It is toxic and its use is limited to infections that fail to respond to the common antibiotics. The drug is on the WHO official list. A brand name is Vancocin.

antibiotic 

1. Pertaining to the ability to destroy or inhibit other living organisms.
2. A substance derived from a mould or bacterium, or produced synthetically, that destroys (bactericidal) or inhibits the growth (bacteriostatic) of other microorganisms and is thus used to treat infections. Some substances have a narrow spectrum of activity whereas others act against a wide range of both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms (broad-spectrum antibiotics). Antibiotics can be classified into several groups according to their mode of action on or within bacteria: (1) Drugs inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis, such as bacitracin, vancomycin and the β-lactams based agents (e.g. penicillin, cephalosporins (e.g. ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime). (2) Drugs affecting the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, such as polymyxin B sulfate and gramicidin. (3) Drugs inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis, such as aminoglycosides (e.g. amikacin sulfate, framycetin sulfate, gentamicin, neomycin sulfate and tobramycin), tetracyclines, macrolides (e.g. erythromycin and azithromycin) and chloramphenicol. (4) Drugs inhibiting the intermediate metabolism of bacteria, such as sulfonamides (e.g. sulfacetamide sodium) and trimethoprim. (5) Drugs inhibiting bacterial DNA synthesis, such as nalixidic acid and fluoroquinolones (e.g. ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin). (6) Other antibiotics such as fusidic acid, the diamidines, such as propamidine isethionate and dibrompropamidine. Syn. antibacterial. See antiinflammatory drug; fusidic acid.

van·co·my·cin

(van'kō-mī'sin)
Antibiotic isolated from cultures of Nocardia orientalis, bactericidal against gram-positive organisms.

vancomycin

a narrow-spectrum antibiotic produced by Streptomyces orientalis, highly effective against gram-positive bacteria; it is commonly reserved for use against serious infections caused by penicillinase-resistant Staphylococci. The toxic effects are quite severe and include damage to the eighth cranial (vestibulocochlear) nerve and renal disorders.

vancomycin resistant enterococcus
a group of multi-drug resistant bacteria associated with high mortality in humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
The overall likelihood of a surgical site infection was decreased by 73 percent in patients who received the vancomycin in their surgical wounds.
The second isolate (VR-MSSA) had a vancomycin MIC of 256 [micro]g/mL and was also resistant to gentamicin (Table 1).
Explain the importance of therapeutic drug monitoring using vancomycin serum concentrations
For enterococci, screening for Vancomycin resistance was done by the agar screen method on MHA, using 6[micro]g/ml vancomycin.
difficile infection, as evidenced by severe diarrhea with positive stool tests for the organism, after multiple courses of vancomycin and/or metronidazole.
The ratio of the area under the serum drug concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) are among the most useful pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters for predicting vancomycin efficacy.
Staphylococcal resistance to vancomycin may develop following prolonged exposure to low serum vancomycin concentrations, which leads to an increase in the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) (5).
aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), for example, the MRSA organism may incorporate into its genome the gene for vancomycin resistance from the VRE bacteria.
Vancomycin is considered the last line of treatment against a variety of serious infections caused by MRSA.
Starting with a crude vancomycin broth that had an initial purity of 34%, the objective was to deliver a final vancomycin purity of at least 85% with greater than a 60% overall process yield.
The discovery reveals new understanding about what is happening at the molecular level in vancomycin resistance.
In 1985, Buu-Hui et al recognized the in vitro resistance of this pathogen to vancomycin (3).

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