Van der Waals forces
are rather weak compared to covalent bonds.
How important the van der Waals force
is, and the way in which it flattens particles--if indeed it can--seem poorly assessed: at least the authors have found neither unequivocal data nor convincing discussion.
The total force of the system, including the electrostatic force and van der Waals force
, is given by:
Manifestations of the electromagnetic force range from the van der Waals forces
of attraction between molecules and atoms to the postulated Casimir-Polder interaction between a neutral atom and an electrically conducting plate.
Because the adhesions were very different, the team concluded that van der Waals forces
don't fully explain how geckos stick to walls.
As an undergraduate at the University of California, Berkeley, she started a research project examining climbing gecko lizards, and ultimately discovered that geckos stick to surfaces using van der Waals forces
Organic semiconductors differ from more conventional kinds by being held together by van der Waals forces
rather than covalent bonds, and so have narrow electronic bandwidths, and charge carriers that are localized and have smaller mobilities.
For deagglomeration, it is necessary that the van der Waals forces
are smaller than the dispersion force.
It's all down to van der Waals forces
, but you knew that.
An interdisciplinary team of researchers, led by Autumn, later confirmed speculation that the gecko's climbing ability depends on van der Waals forces
, which are weak electrodynamic forces that operate over very small distances but bond to nearly any material.
In the 16 October 2003 Advanced Materials article, Lee explains: "In the natural state, [montmorillonite] platelets are held together by van der Waals forces
and electrostatic forces to form crystallites (tactoids).
Typically, foam-causing components stabilize foam because of ionic forces, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces