The adsorption capacity of valeric acid
increased sharply up to dosing rate of 0.692 g from 0.082 g as shown in Fig.
The PHA yield was 18.86, 25.21, and 14.42% in the presence of propionic, butyric and valeric acid
in the medium, respectively.
Products: Acids, including 2-ethylhexoic acid, isopentanoic acid, valeric acid
, and propionic acid
The analyses revealed changes from the initial concentrations of fatty acids in the first 4 weeks (acetic acid [880 [right arrow] 2479 ppm], propionic acid [290 [right arrow] 550 ppm], butyric acid [216 [right arrow] 235 ppm], valeric acid
[30 [right arrow] 68 ppm], iso-butyric acid [157 [right arrow] 249 ppm], and iso-valeric acid [210 [right arrow] 349 ppm]).
As shown in Table 6, the pH and acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, isovaleric, and valeric acid
contents of the incubation fluid did not change different between treatments (p>0.05).
Products: Acids including 2-ethylhexoic acid, isopentanoic acid, and valeric acid
succinogenes needs valeric acid
and isobutyric acid .
A synergistic effect of BA and LAB on decreasing the butyric and valeric acid
proportion could be observed at 35 d, but the BA treatment did not have any effect on proportions of butyric and valeric acid
at 21 d.
The addition of DL-MHA in diet had a linear increase (p<0.05) in acetic acid and total SCFAs concentration in the cecum, whereas valeric acid
in the cecum quadratically increased (p<0.05) with increasing DL-MHA levels.
of sheep 4 4 Rumen pH 6.82 6.86 0.10 0.81 N[H.sub.3] (mmol/L) 4.56 7.06 1.06 0.03 VFA (mmol/L) Total 79.5 88.4 6.4 0.09 Acetic acid 59.5 61.3 4.4 0.38 Propionic acid 13.7 20.9 2.6 0.01 iso-Butyric acid 0.7 0.3 0.1 0.01 Butyric acid 4.6 5.3 0.5 0.17 iso-Valeric acid 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.05 Valeric acid
0.5 0.3 0.1 0.34 MH, mixed hay of orchardgrass and reed canarygrass; RSUM, rice straw supplemented with urea and molasses; SEM, standard error of the mean.
The fatty acid mixture contained valeric acid
, 0.5 mL; isovaleric acid, 0.5 mL; 2-methylbutyric acid, 0.5 mL; isobutyric acid, 0.5 mL; and distilled water, 20.0 mL, adjusting pH to 7.5 with concentrated NaUH.
A total of 11 different types of VOCs were analyzed in this study, which included two sulfuric compounds (dimethyl sulfide [DMS] and dimethyl disulfide [DMDS]); six volatile fatty acids (acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, iso-butyric acid, valeric acid
and isovaleric acid); two indolics (indole and skatole); and one phenolic (p-cresol).