It is a provocation test that reproduces the vagosympathetic
disturbances observed during syncope2.
There are a lot of factors that can cause cardiac arrhythmia in trauma patients, such as abnormal tissue perfusion, vagosympathetic
stimulus, electrical gradient difference between normal and injured tissue, aberrant conductions occurred after myocardial damage, electrolyte imbalance, catecholamine discharge, pain, and anxiety.
This nerve accompanying with the vagus nerve in the cervical region and named vagosympathetic
trunk and covered with a sheath after 4 [+ or -] 0.2 cm from its origin (Figs.
Fysekidis, "Insulin- and glucagon-like peptide-1-induced changes in heart rate and vagosympathetic
activity: why they matter," Diabetologia, vol.
These findings suggest that there was disruption of the vagosympathetic
balance in most cases as a consequence of rTMS.
Therefore, our findings of depressed SDNN with source factors in summer do not suggest a specific mechanism of HRV modulation, merely a homeostatic disruption in vagosympathetic
For cervical vagal trunk stimulation (CVTS), an self-made bipolar silver electrodes with 2-5 mm distance was inserted into the vagosympathetic
trunk in a parallel way.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) as a result of electrical stimulation of the vagosympathetic
cervical trunk has been described nearly a century ago (1).
brachial plexus, sciatic nerve, vagosympathetic
trunk) Tissues negative for CWD agent Dorsal root ganglia Parotid and mandibular salivary glands, tongue, esophagus, small intestine, colon Thymus Liver Kidneys, urinary bladder, ovary, uterus, testis, epididymis, placentomas Myocardium, Purkinje fibers, arteries, veins Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, aleveolar parenchyma Bone marrow Thyroid gland, adrenal gland Skeletal muscle Skin (a) CWD, chronic wasting disease.
Therefore, the separation of the vagosympathetic
trunk in the most proximal part of the neck exhibited great variability among the ungulates.
SDNN and LF generally mirror overall vagosympathetic
Most of the vagosympathetic
trunks of the extrinsic system contain vagal nerve fibers; they serve as parasympathetic innervation and converge at the epicardial fat pads around the superior vena cava, pulmonary veins (PVs), and the aorta, postulated to be "integration centers" The extrinsic component modulates cardiac electrophysiology and the inducibility of AF [6, 7].