Atrial fibrillation (AF) as a result of electrical stimulation of the vagosympathetic cervical trunk has been described nearly a century ago (1).
Subsequently, the responses to stimulation of the right cervical vagosympathetic complex versus the right juxta cardiac nerves were compared (4).
In a limited series, the cervical vagosympathetic trunks were sectioned and the right distal stump was stimulated with bipolar stainless steel electrodes supra (1 ms, 1 to 4 mA, 15 to 30 Hz) until sinus bradycardia, sinus arrest and then the initiation of AF was obtained.
The isointegral maps derived during stimulation of the cervical vagosympathetic or complex mediastinal nerves afford high-resolution identification of the spatial distribution of the terminal parasympathetic efferent neuronal fibers.
brachial plexus, sciatic nerve, vagosympathetic trunk) Tissues negative for CWD agent Dorsal root ganglia Parotid and mandibular salivary glands, tongue, esophagus, small intestine, colon Thymus Liver Kidneys, urinary bladder, ovary, uterus, testis, epididymis, placentomas Myocardium, Purkinje fibers, arteries, veins Trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, aleveolar parenchyma Bone marrow Thyroid gland, adrenal gland Skeletal muscle Skin (a) CWD, chronic wasting disease.
CWD] in the myenteric plexus, vagosympathetic trunk and endocrine glands of deer with chronic wasting disease.