Determination of estrus cycle stage: Since menstrual disturbance is a typical clinical feature of PCOS women, estrous cycles were examined in all groups of mice by evaluating the cell types in vaginal smears
. Cytological examination revealed that both control and vehicle mice had normal estrous cyclicity and showed different stages of the cycle containing proestrus (round, nucleated epithelial cells), estrus (cornified squamous epithelial cells), metestrus (cornified squamous epithelial cells and predominance of leukocytes), and diestrus (predominance of leukocytes) (Table 1).
In addition to the recording and analysis of vaginal smears
, we took photographs (Nikon Coolpix l330[R] Camera) to the vaginal opening of every female to observe changes related to the estrous cycle (Byers et al., 2012).
Reproducibility of interpretation of gram-stained vaginal smears
for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.
Follow up of all rats was carried out by daily vaginal smear
at 10:00-11:00AM after completion of CTX injections and for eight weeks following the intervention to check for the number of normal estrous cycles.
could be collected and analyzed from 601 women as the remaining declined internal examination.
All PCB-fed animals demonstrated an increase in the time between placement of males and females in the same cage and presence of a sperm-positive vaginal smear
Two questions in the first questionnaire provided an occasion for investigators to discuss dosage as well as the relative merits of clinical judgment and laboratory tests in the practice of medicine: "What dose do you use for each condition?" and "By what means do you judge adequacy of dosage?" In their answers to these questions, many of the physicians discussed the relative merits of the vaginal smear
in clinical medicine.
The oestrous cycle was determined by microscopic examination of vaginal smears
During 3 postpartum months the cell composition of female moose vaginal smears
taken from the most extreme section of the vagina shows the early desquamation of 13.7-22.5% of immature superficial cells.
The enrollment criteria included <5% superficial cells on vaginal smear
, vaginal pH >5.0, and at least 1 moderate or severe symptom of WA (vaginal dryness, soreness, irritation/itching, pain with intercourse, or bleeding after intercourse).
Evaluation of Vaginal Smear
: With a sterile cotton swab the posterior vaginal wall was swept and was smeared on a clean and sterile glass slide.
Diagnosis of uterine cancer by vaginal smear
. New York, NY: The Commonwealth Fund, 1943.