vaginal smear

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vag·i·nal smear

a smear of debris from the vaginal lumen of mammals, used to determine the stage of their reproductive cycle. It is most useful in subprimate mammals having short estrous cycles; nucleated epithelial cells and leukocytes prevail in the smear during diestrus and proestrus, and cornified cells during estrus.


pertaining to the vagina, the tunica vaginalis testis, or to any sheath.

vaginal annulus
see annulus vaginalis.
vaginal aplasia
manifested by imperforate hymen or residual strands of hymen. See imperforate hymen.
vaginal aspiration
use of a suction apparatus to collect a sample of vaginal fluid for culture, cytological or immunological examination.
vaginal biopsy
collection of a sample of mucosa by a pinch biopsy instrument for histopathological examination.
vaginal constriction
inherited defect in Jersey cows combined with anal constriction, sometimes with rectovaginal fistula.
vaginal cyclic changes
see vaginal cytology (below).
vaginal cystocele
the urinary bladder is lying on the floor of the vagina; the displacement has been via the urethra by eversion or via a tear in the floor of the vagina.
vaginal cytology
cyclic changes in the exfoliated epithelial cells of the vaginal mucosa occurring synchronously with the stages of the estrous cycle; collection of samples by the use of a swab and laboratory examination of a smear is a useful aid in determining the most appropriate time to mate a bitch.
vaginal fornix
see vaginal fornix.
vaginal hypoplasia segmental
see müllerian duct aplasia.
vaginal inflammation
see vaginitis (1).
vaginal neoplasm
include papilloma, sarcoma, myxofibroma.
vaginal process
an outpocketing of the peritoneum into the gubernaculum at the site of the future inguinal canal in the male fetus; becomes the tunica vagina of the adult.
vaginal prolapse
see vaginal prolapse.
vaginal retainer
see bearing retainer.
vaginal ring
see annulus vaginalis.
vaginal rupture
occurs during mating, dystocia, insemination, or by sadistic or malicious trauma. Results in peritonitis or cellulitis of the pelvic fascia.
vaginal smear
examination of the cells in a smear is used as an aid in predicting the time of ovulation, which may be useful in selecting the optimal date for breeding.
vaginal stricture
cicatricial contraction after traumatic injury.
vaginal tunic
the double peritoneal fold which encloses the spermatic cord and the testis; made up of a visceral layer which is adherent to the testis and cord, and a parietal layer which lines the scrotum and the inguinal canal.
vaginal vestibule
entrance to the vagina enclosed between the lips of the vulva, the labia minor. Connects the vagina at the external urethral orifice to the external genital opening; develops from the embryonic urogenital sinus.
vaginal wash
irrigation of the vagina with sterile saline can be used to recover cells, which are stained and examined microscopically to monitor estrus.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition to the recording and analysis of vaginal smears, we took photographs (Nikon Coolpix l330[R] Camera) to the vaginal opening of every female to observe changes related to the estrous cycle (Byers et al.
These hormonal findings were confirmed by histological and cytological vaginal smear results (Figures III- VII).
Grading the microbial flora seen in Gram-stained vaginal smears for diagnosing BV was first described by Spiegel et al (14), but was found to be only moderately reliable because of the wide variability in recognition of bacterial morphotypes by Gram smear evaluators.
All PCB-fed animals demonstrated an increase in the time between placement of males and females in the same cage and presence of a sperm-positive vaginal smear (Fig.
In their answers to these questions, many of the physicians discussed the relative merits of the vaginal smear in clinical medicine.
There were 4 co-primary end points: percentage of superficial cells on the vaginal smear, percentage of parabasal cells on the vaginal smear, vaginal pH, and self-assessed MBS using a Likert scale (0, none; 1, mild; 2, moderate; 3, severe).
The role of the vaginal smear in the detection of metestrus and anestrus in the bitch.
In 1921, Schroder published illustrations of vaginal smears with three grades of vaginal flora and changes in flora consistent with BV.
Parba's vagina also 'had presence of spermatozoa at the vaginal smears through direct examination.
Gram-stained vaginal smears are the least expensive and fastest among the laboratory methods.
All the vaginal smears were processed within 20 minutes after liaising with the microbiology department.