Seven cases required blood transfusion of which five had vulval haematoma and two had extensive vaginal laceration
. Vulvovaginal injuries requiring repair in 38.46% of the cases.
These obstetric factors include vaginal delivery, rupture of membrane of greater than four hours, episiotomy, vaginal laceration
, chorioamnionitis and the use of scalp electrode (2-4).
The obstetric parameters included mode of delivery (spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) versus cesarean section (CS)), use of forceps, postpartum hemorrhage, emergency birth, uterine inertia, duration of the first stage and second stage of labor, birth canal laceration (e.g., cervical laceration, vaginal laceration
, and perineal laceration), fetal biparietal diameter and amniotic fluid index (within one week before birth), and pelvic measurements (including the anterior superior iliac spine diameter, iliac spine diameter, sacral shame diameter, and ischial tuberosity diameter).
Key informants at health facilities in each country were asked about the direct expenses related to the treatment of five categories of abortion complications--incomplete abortion, sepsis, shock, cervical or vaginal laceration
, and uterine laceration or perforation; the survey gathered detailed information on the costs of labor, drugs, materials and supplies.
Incidence of cervical tear and vaginal laceration
was comparable in all the groups.
In the etiology, inadequate estrogen levels and erosion of the vulvar epithelium because of the recurrent irritation are the typical predisposing factors.1,2 Fusion of the labia minora is mostly a pediatric condition seen from three months to three years of age.3 In adults, labial fusion is associated with local inflamation, vaginitis, hypoestrogenism, local vulvar trauma, vaginal laceration
or untreated urinary system infections.4,5
Unrecognized, vaginal laceration
may predispose patients to mesh extrusion.
There was also no relationship between urinary incontinence and anterior vaginal laceration
or epidural anesthesia.
Repair of the 1st- and 2nd-degree vaginal laceration
and perineal body is then completed in the usual fashion.
I've found that clinicians often spend too much time trying to determine whether postpartum bleeding originates in the uterus or from a cervical or vaginal laceration
. But heavy bleeding can obscure anatomic structures, making it difficult to identify the site of bleeding with precision.
The jetty Vaginal Repair Balloon is indicated for use in episiotomy and vaginal laceration
repair to temporarily prevent postpartum fluids from discharging from the vagina.
A 6-INCH VAGINAL LACERATION
was discovered after a woman delivered a healthy baby.