3) surgical suction machines, vacuum extractors
, vacuum cleaners ultrasonic surgical or regulatory or accessories (2 Box)
Numerous instruments have been used to assist extraction, including obstetric forceps, tenaculum, ring forceps, vacuum extractors
, Foley catheters and even a Sengstaken-Blackmore tube8.
The court went on to note that thousands of babies are delivered with the help of vacuum extractors year after year without incident.
Garcia, was negligent in using a fetal vacuum extractor during delivery, and that his negligence caused Daniel to sustain a brain injury, leaving him with cerebral palsy.
The newer vacuum extractors are made of Silastic or some other form of plastic and the vacuum does not need to be maintained when te patient is not pushing.
Peterson questioned why the vacuum extractor should have a maximum use of no more than 15-20 minutes ("Vacuum Extraction Issues," April 15, 2002, p.
The original vacuum extractor, Malmstrom's in particular, had a metal cup with a screen and worked on a principle of generating a caput that molded into the cup of the extractor.
Many of the reported cases involved the use of the metal (Malmstrom) vacuum device, but, as in four of our cases, subgaleal hematoma also can be associated with use of the soft-cup vacuum extractors.
However, all vacuum extractors, soft or metal cups, have the potential to cause extensive fetal trauma and therefore must be used carefully, adhering strictly to guidelines for initiating and abandoning a trial of vacuum-assisted delivery.
All practitioners who use vacuum extractors to assist with deliveries should be aware of subgaleal hematoma as a potential, although rare, complication of the procedure.
Type of delivery (vaginal or cesarean) seems to make little or no difference in transmission, but use of scalp electrodes, episiotomy, forceps or vacuum extractors
seem to raise the rates somewhat, perhaps because of increased exposure to maternal blood.
Peterson's assessment that the majority of babies delivered by vacuum extractors
are out by 5 minutes, but others take somewhat longer and are still successfully and atraumatically delivered.