Finally, perforating disorders with transepidermal elimination of elastin (elastosis perforans serpiginosa, perforating folliculitis, perforating pseudoxanthoma elasticum) may resemble HLE, but these lesions contain neutrophils and histiocytes with fewer lymphocytes and typically do not demonstrate vacuolar
interface changes (Figure 7, B).
Lewis-Weis LA, Gerhold RW, and Fischer JR: Attempts to reproduce vacuolar
myelinopathy in domestic swine and chickens.
Acquired myotonia, weakness and vacuolar
myopathy secondary to cyclosporine.
2] type) (plasma membrane type) operates via phosphoenzyme intermediate ; the F-type catalyse the synthesis of ATP during oxidative (photo) phosphorylation in mitochondria and chloroplasts ; and the V-ATPases (the vacuolar
type) (EC 3.
1984), a vacuolar
ion channel (Bethke and Jones, 1994), a root-expressed glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) enzyme (Ling et al.
myelopathy--A morphometric study.
Other disorders that can arise from primary HIV infection in the CNS include minor cognitive motor disorder, delirium, aseptic meningitis, and vacuolar
myelopathy "Psychotic disorders due to a general medical condition are [also] important to rule out.
Researchers at the University of Georgia are working to determine the cause of Avian Vacuolar
Myelinopathy which has killed eagles and other birds in four states, which is currently unknown.
However, the discovery of the disease in other waterfowl species in 1999 prompted a change; the disease is now called Avian Vacuolar
Myelinopathy, or AVM.
Skin biopsy specimens reveal a "saw-tooth" epidermal hyperplasia and a lichenoid interface infiltrate with vacuolar
alteration along the basement membrane.
The research, led by investigators from the University of British Columbia (UBC), leveraged recent advances in human exome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis to identify a mutation in vacuolar
protein-sorting associated protein 35 (VPS35) as a genetic determinant of late-onset PD.
Removal of water from the cytoplasm to the extracellular space causes a decrease in the cytosolic and vacuolar
volumes  and a reduction in the rate of photosynthesis [2,16].