Although numerous European countries have introduced stronger vaccination policies, stubborn pockets of vaccine refusal
have fueled epidemics across the continent.
A number of European countries have implemented stronger vaccination policies, but areas of vaccine refusal
have led to epidemics across the continent, the AP reported.
The sudden increase is largely being blamed on vaccine refusal
by parents after widespread anti-vaccine propaganda was disseminated through social media, even by some mainstream media outlets, which strengthened the falsehood that polio was damaging for childrens' health, or part of a Western conspiracy against Muslims.
Recent outbreaks of measles throughout the world have prompted alarm among public health officials and the public about the growing phenomenon of vaccine refusal
KARACHI -- A six-month-old male child with reportedly history of polio vaccine refusal
has fallen victim to the crippling disease in Gulshan-e-Iqbal area of Karachi, confirmed the Emergency Operation Centre (EOC) for Polio Sindh on Thursday.
Increased vaccine refusal
in wealthy countries is clearly linked to a rise in support for populist political parties and suspicion towards elites and experts.
is a "growing public health timebomb", the head of the NHS has warned.
In the UK the Vaccination Act of 1853 ordered mandatory vaccination for infants up to 3 months old, with penalties for vaccine refusal
. This was met with immediate resistance, with organisations such as the Anti-Vaccination League forming as a result.
These questions allowed me to understand one-time healthcare decisions made during the outbreak, such as vaccine refusal
or prophylactic acceptance, as enmeshed in complex and experience-informed knowledge networks.
This edition has new topics, such as neonatal abstinence syndrome, vaccine refusal
, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, transgender youth, and follow-up of neonatal intensive care unit graduates.
Unexpected circumstances affect those factors, visiting a crowded Californian theme park is equivalent to a temporary high population density and can result in a larger outbreak (9), but measles outbreaks were mainly attributed to vaccine refusal
in several reports (10).
Vaccine hesitancy and vaccine refusal
are extremely complex social issues that require interventions at the individual, provider, health care system, and national levels.