and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
This isomer is formed during ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) to stearic acid (C18:0) and by endogenous conversion of vaccenic acid
(VA, C18:1 trans-11) by A9 desaturase in tissues .
Bioconversion of vaccenic acid
to conjugated linoleic acid in humans.
Zervas, "Comparative study between sheep and goats on rumenic acid and vaccenic acid
in milk fat under the same dietary treatments," Livestock Science, vol.
For the Ls-Sc and [Ls-Sc.sup.+], there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the concentration of the MUFA vaccenic acid
(C18:1 trans-11) after the 7th day of ripening.
In decreasing order, linolenic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), oleic acid (18:1n-9), palmitic acid (16:0), alpha linoleic acid (18:3n-3), vaccenic acid
(18:1n-7), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and myristic acid (14:0) were the most abundant fatty acids detected.
Fatty acid composition of ruminal bacteria and protozoa, with emphasis on conjugated linoleic acid, vaccenic acid
, and odd-chain and branched-chain fatty acids.
Major MUFA was oleic acid (C18:1 w9 cis) which accounted for 10.47%, followed by vaccenic acid
(C18:1 w7 cis) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1 cis) with amounts of 2.12% and 1.88%, respectively.
The following TFAs were measured and used in the current study: trans-9-hexadecenoic acid (palmitelaidic acid, C16:1n-7t), trans-9-octadecenoic acid (elaidic acid, C18:1n9t), trans-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid
, C18:1n-7t), and trans-9-, trans-12-octadecadienoic acid (linolelaidic acid, C18:2n-6t, 9t) [18, 19].
Analysis of the fish oil gums verified that they contained 35,7% DHA, 27,7% EPA, 3.32% docosapentaenoic acid, 18,5% oleic acid, 3,1% vaccenic acid
, 1,4% stearic acid, 1,2% palmitic acid, 1,7% arachidonic acid, and small amounts of other fatty acids (Table 1).
Flavor and stability of pasteurized milk with elevated levels of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid
. Journal of Dairy Sciences, 88: 489-498.