and trans fatty acid isomers from partially hydrogenated oil both adversely affect LDL cholesterol: double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
This isomer is formed during ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) to stearic acid (C18:0) and by endogenous conversion of vaccenic acid
(VA, C18:1 trans-11) by A9 desaturase in tissues .
Zervas, "Comparative study between sheep and goats on rumenic acid and vaccenic acid
in milk fat under the same dietary treatments," Livestock Science, vol.
For the Ls-Sc and [Ls-Sc.sup.+], there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the concentration of the MUFA vaccenic acid
(C18:1 trans-11) after the 7th day of ripening.
In decreasing order, linolenic acid (LA, 18:2n-6), oleic acid (18:1n-9), palmitic acid (16:0), alpha linoleic acid (18:3n-3), vaccenic acid
(18:1n-7), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7) and myristic acid (14:0) were the most abundant fatty acids detected.
Fatty acid composition of ruminal bacteria and protozoa, with emphasis on conjugated linoleic acid, vaccenic acid
, and odd-chain and branched-chain fatty acids.
Major MUFA was oleic acid (C18:1 w9 cis) which accounted for 10.47%, followed by vaccenic acid
(C18:1 w7 cis) and palmitoleic acid (C16:1 cis) with amounts of 2.12% and 1.88%, respectively.
The following TFAs were measured and used in the current study: trans-9-hexadecenoic acid (palmitelaidic acid, C16:1n-7t), trans-9-octadecenoic acid (elaidic acid, C18:1n9t), trans-11-octadecenoic acid (vaccenic acid
, C18:1n-7t), and trans-9-, trans-12-octadecadienoic acid (linolelaidic acid, C18:2n-6t, 9t) [18, 19].
Analysis of the fish oil gums verified that they contained 35,7% DHA, 27,7% EPA, 3.32% docosapentaenoic acid, 18,5% oleic acid, 3,1% vaccenic acid
, 1,4% stearic acid, 1,2% palmitic acid, 1,7% arachidonic acid, and small amounts of other fatty acids (Table 1).
Flavor and stability of pasteurized milk with elevated levels of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid
. Journal of Dairy Sciences, 88: 489-498.