PKxMt lowers high vowels to mid after uvulars (*i > e, *u > o).
7.2.1 The regular correspondences for initial uvulars before vowels other than -i- in PZ are PEI /*x/ and PDr /*q/, which undergo the regular changes for each group.
This paper endeavors to show that such innovations exist in the inherited phonology of the dorsal consonants (palatals, velars, and uvulars).
In PKxMt, /i > e/ after uvulars, so Kurux's regular change (q >x) results in /xe/ in this case; see [section]220.127.116.11.
poka with velar; forms with uvulars still not directly cognate.
[DEDR 5450] It is not certain that the uvulars are, in fact, directly cognate.
Remember that Malto does not allow velars and uvulars to cooccur in the same syllable without a morpheme boundary.
7.3 Uvulars can be reconstructed to PD[r.sub.1] solely on the evidence of PKxMt.
In Nanai, a Tungusic language of the lower Amur region, k, g, and x have uvular
variants when occurring before vowels of the pharyngeal series; 1 likewise has a darker (i.e., pharyngealized) variant in the presence of pharyngealized vowels (Avrorin 1959: 32-37).
Thus, Lass--Anderson (1975: 85-89) argue in favour of a back articulation of Old English /r/ (a uvular fricative [[??]] or trill [R]) on the grounds that Old English front-vowel diphthongisation (breaking) is explicable as a coarticulatory effect caused by members of the natural class of back consonants.
(10) Lass speculates that other realisations of /r/ known from various accents of Modern English (alveolar trills and taps, apical or uvular approximants and fricatives) are mostly post-sixteenth-century innovations (Lass 1983: 82).
Denton remarks that "the rhotics of the modern European Germanic languages include virtually every conceivable rhotic articulation from labial fricatives to uvular trills and pharyngealized approximants" (2003: 40) and goes on to say that it would be unrealistic to expect the same phonetic value of Germanic *r across all early dialects.