A dysmorphic uterus, which was formerly known as "T-shaped uterus" in the American Fertility Society classification of anomalies of the Mullerian duct, is denoted as a second-class (Class U1) uterine anomaly
in the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) (ESHRE/ESGE) consensus on the classification of congenital genital tract anomalies, and it leads to poor reproductive and obstetric outcomes (12).
If a uterine anomaly
is associated with a rudimentary uterine horn with no outlet, menstrual outflow will be obstructed, resulting in very painful menses.
Patients were excluded from the study if pathologies causing secondary dysmenorrhea existed, including: fibroids, adnexal masses (abscess, ovarian cyst, and hydrosalpinx), gynecological operation history, pelvic inflammatory disease history, presence of urinary or other infections, uterine anomaly
, oral contraceptive use, alcohol and cigarette use, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in the last two days.
As recommended for daily practice, we classified this reported congenital uterine anomaly
using the CUME reference standard (internal indentation depth > 10 mm) as septate uterus, in agreement with experts' opinion from different societies in the field .
Conventional transabdominal metroplasty seems to be a safe and efficient procedure in women with bicornuate uterine anomaly
However, complete septate uterus with a cervical septum and longitudinal vaginal septum is a rare uterine anomaly
Gunter, referring to Ivana, went on to exclaim that if she had a patient whose IUDs failed twice, she would start looking for reasons which would include a fibroid or a uterine anomaly
Risk factors for pre term labour include low socio economic status, multiple gestations, cervical insufficiency, prior pre-term labour, uterine anomaly
and maternal infections.
Such deliveries indicate that women with this uterine anomaly
may have the potential to carry pregnancies to full term.
Yussman, "Endometriosis in association with uterine anomaly
," American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, vol.
The uterine anomaly
(didelphys, bicornuate, and rarely, septate uterus) is due to the absence of the "inducting" function of the injured mesonephric duct on the Mullerian duct, being thus a consequence.
The role of cervical cerclage in pregnancy outcome in women with uterine anomaly
. J Reprod Infertil.