The dorsal scolus of the prothorax, mesothorax, and the ninth abdominal segment are longer than the others, a larval feature very common among Hemileucinae (Lemaire, 2002); the scoli are slightly clearer than the integument, but their urticating
setae are darker.
caterpillars collected from December 2007 to January 2008, on blueberries of the cultivar Bluebelle in Pelotas, RS, were identified as Tolype innocens (Burmeister, 1878) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).
hairs were inspected and measured under the light microscope.
Individuals of this family have defense structures with bristles that inject urticating
substances and provoke burns in mammals (Fornes and Hernandez, 2001; Gouvcia et al.
The bite can be painful and the surrounding tissue may itch and have a rash due to the urticating
hairs of the spider.
However, only one queen located the prostoma, and in that case, the stiff, erect, and urticating
hairs prevented her from opening the stem at the prostoma.
multiple reddish brown maculae urticating
Immediate deterrence is enhanced by the use of weapons, such as stings, jets of noxious fluid, or urticating
hairs, by the storage of toxins near the body surface or in relatively expendable parts such as wings (Benson, 1971; Boyden, 1976), or by having a tough cuticle (Poulton, 1890; Fisher, 1930; Sundberg, 1987) or shell (Rosenberg, 1989).
In 2009 an outbreak of urticating
bristly caterpillars Euproctis rufopunctata Walker, 1862, the red-dotted Euproctis, in a suburb of Durban, raised a number of public concerns (Sanpath 2009).
I fail to understand why, near the end of the book, 5 caterpillars with urticating
hairs, a group where color is important for identification, were displayed in black and white photographs.
We chose to remove the medial limb (III) because the anterior legs (I and II) are used in sensory behaviors and the posterior legs (IV) are used defensively in brushing urticating
hairs (Smith 1994).
Instar E is the first instar where urticating
hairs develop (Perez-Miles 2002) and the spiderlings are able to feed by themselves (occasional observations).