(2) Urothelial carcinoma develops in the stratified epithelial layer called urothelium
of the urinary system along 2 tracks referred to as -papillary and nonpapillary, leading to different but somewhat overlapping subsets of the disease with distinct molecular profile and challenges for clinical management.
The investigation demonstrates that several species of bacteria can work their way inside the human bladder's surface area, called the urothelium
, in UTI patients.
Adenomatous metaplasia (nephrogenic adenoma) of urothelium
: an analysis of 70 cases.
MDCT urography is tailored to visualize calculi, renal parenchyma, and the urothelium
. Probably the most commonly utilized protocol is the singlebolus, or three-phase, technique.
Campbell-Walsh Urology defines UTI as" an inflammatory response of the urothelium
to bacterial invasion that is usually associated with bacteriuria and pyuria1."
The control group had a regular layout of mucosa with urothelium
(Fig.1A1) and a few numbers of granulated mast cells (Fig.
A visual endoscopic evaluation of the bladder urothelium
Pathology was read consistent with a benign fibroepithelial polyp, demonstrating a loose, predominantly fibrovascular stroma covered by a benign urothelium
. With increasing comfort of endourologic modalities, the ureteroscopic management of UFPs at the UPJ represents a mainstay of therapy in modern day urology.
A commonly accepted theory is that symptoms of PBS/IC may arise due to a defect in the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer covering the bladder urothelium
.  GAG layer acts as a barrier between toxins and bladder urothelium
, and protects it from injury by these toxins.
Scher et al., "Effect of Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor on Neutropenia and Associated Morbidity Due to Chemotherapy for Transitional-Cell Carcinoma of the Urothelium
," The New England Journal of Medicine, vol.
Whether this is due to tetraploidic cells detected due to the stress applied to the urothelium
by mechanical manipulation of the upper tract remains to be elucidated.