Some other versions of the Gilbertus share it, but not all of them, and works other than the Gilbertus may also contain this text.6 Teresa Tavormina7 has suggested the hypothesis that the original manuscript might have contained a note at the beginning for possible copyists, urging them to include there the information on humours, uroscopy
Though subtle and complex in theory and cloudy in interpretation, the practice of uroscopy involved fairly direct, simple technology: a urine sample, contained in the clear glass urinal, matula, or jordan--shaped in conscious and calculated replication of the human bladder--was "read" for signs of disease, measured against carefully calibrated charts of healthy urine that indicated variations in clarity, viscosity, color, smell, sediments, foreign matter, and, of course, taste.
Malingre demonstrates a relatively intimate knowledge of the practice of uroscopy, evidently assumes his audience will identify with it, and certainly does not shy away from using it in a highly religious context.
To conclude appropriately enough with an idiomatic expression borrowed directly from the contemporary science and practice of uroscopy: Nous voudrions bien voir de leur urine (We would really like to see their urine); that is to say, "By their urine shall we know them." Indeed, by their urine, and, more specifically, by the rhetorical use they made of that urine, that excrement, shall we know better the sixteenth century.
Keir Elam, dissecting the semiotics of "body criticism" of Twelfth Night--that which "adopts as its own universe of discourse the realms of early modern gastroenterology (the alimentary tract), uroscopy
(great P's), gynaecology (the cut) and comparative reproductive physiology (one-sex/flesh)"--throws out the provocative suggestion that the physiological preoccupations of recent Shakespeare criticism comprise "a return to a Puritan aesthetic, or antiaesthetic, of the drama as pathology" (153).
Toward proteomics in uroscopy
: urinary protein profles after radiocontrast administration.
in the 21st century: high-feld NMR spectroscopy [Review].
The ancient Greeks attributed all disease to disorders of bodily fluids called humors, and during the late medieval period, doctors routinely performed uroscopy. Later, the microscope revealed not only the cellular structure of human tissue, but also the organisms that cause disease.
Diagnosis by "water casting" (uroscopy) was practiced, and the urine flask became the emblem of medieval medicine.
Uroscopy was still in widespread use and had gained popularity as a method to diagnose "chlorosis," or love-sick young women, and sometimes to test for chastity.
in the 21st century: high-field NMR spectroscopy.