Causes of bilateral/variable, left-sided and right-sided pleural effusion Bilateral / Variable Left (*) Right (*) Transudate Left sided heart Constrictive Cirrhotic liver disease failure pericarditis Right sided heart Hypoalbuminemia failure Peritoneal dialysis Meigs' syndrome Nephrotic syndrome Superior vena cava Pulmonary embolism obstruction Hypothyroidism Ovarian hyperstimulation Chylothorax Urinothorax
Exudate Parapneumonic Following Hepatic abscess effusion cardiac Chylothorax Malignant neoplasm surgery Pulmonary embolism Splenic Rheumatoid abscess arthritis Benign Post-MI effusion secondary syndrome to asbestosis Acute Other autoimmune pancreatitis diseases Pancreati- Subphrenic abscess copleural Uremia fistula Drug induced Radiotherapy Esophageal rupture Table 5.
An unusual cause of pleural effusion, urinothorax
in a child with urinary stone disease.
Causes of a transudate Frequent * Congestive cardiac failure * Hypoalbuminaemia * Peritoneal dialysis * Liver failure Infrequent * Hypothyroidism * Nephrotic syndrome * Pulmonary embolism * Urinothorax
* Pericardial constriction * Mitral valve stenosis Table 2.
The following is a case of urinothorax which required urgent evaluation and management in the face of increasing respiratory insufficiency.
6) Our patient's urinothorax was secondary to tract formation from nephrostomy tube placement as evidenced on CT.
Increasingly complex urologic procedures may lead to an increased frequency of urinothorax.
If this complication is suspected but not followed up, urinothorax
may have serious consequences.