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See urinary albumin.
any large organic compound made from one or more polypeptides, which are chains of amino acids joined in a genetically determined order by peptide linkages between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the next. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and usually sulfur, occasionally phosphorus.
Proteins form a large and essential part of the body mass, comprising especially cell membranes, connective tissue, muscles, enzymes, hormones, blood proteins. To maintain this mass the diet must contain a high proportion of protein, especially in growing animals and those recovering from debilitating diseases.
a surface protein of Staphylococus aureus which binds to the Fc region of some IgG molecules. Fluorochrome-labeled protein A is used in an indirect immunofluorescence test for detecting bound immunoglobulins.
a recombinant protein with all its naturally occurring properties.
the portion of dietary protein that can be used by the animal.
a property of many drugs which limits their distribution and availability in the blood, as well as affecting elimination from the body.
a circulating vitamin K-dependent protein with anticoagulant effects. Promotes fibrinolysis.
calories derived from proteins in the diet.
protein calorie malnutrition
inadequate protein in the diet leads to impaired cell-mediated immunity, delayed wound healing and loss of lean body mass.
the number of calories provided from protein sources, compared with the total caloric intake; an indication of the level of protein intake.
one which, when coupled to a hapten, renders it capable of eliciting an immune response.
one containing the essential amino acids in the proportion required in the diet.
feeds containing a high concentration of protein, e.g. legume grains and forages, meat meal, fish meal, oil cakes, milling residues including bran, shorts, middlings, brewer's grains.
those in which the protein molecule is united with nonprotein molecules or prosthetic groups, e.g. glycoproteins, lipoproteins and metalloproteins.
in urine is valuable in correcting for variation in urine contents due to variable dilutions.
the total nitrogen content of a feed multiplied by 6.25. Includes several obvious errors but is still a close approximation of the protein content.
is usually the most expensive part of the diet, except for animals at pasture, and the constituent most likely to be deficient. An excess of protein in the diet in ruminants can cause a sharp rise in alkalinity, due to the release of ammonia, of the ruminal contents causing ruminal atony and indigestion.
the crude protein ingested less the protein excreted in the feces. The estimation requires a digestibility trial involving animals.
said of a feed. The total nitrogen content expressed as protein if it were all in that form. That is the percentage nitrogen in the feed multiplied by the average percentage of nitrogen in plant protein (6.25%).
protein excretion t
one that uses 51Cr-labeled protein which measures protein excretion in the feces in cases of protein-losing enteropathy.
see plasma protein:fibrinogen ratio.
in recombinant DNA technology when a foreign gene is inserted into a plasmid vector to interrupt a gene, such as lacZ, the mRNA transcript of the recombinant plasmid contains the lacZ Shine-Dalgarno sequence and codons for the 3′ end of the lacZ gene protein followed by the codons of the foreign gene; the protein expressed is a fusion protein containing a few N-terminal lacZ amino acids and the contiguous foreign protein.
pharmaceutical preparations used in the treatment of severe, acute protein loss. Available for use orally or parenterally. They are partly digested proteins and contain a mixture of polypeptides, amino acids and other breakdown products.
an ordered set of small samples of proteins immobilized on a microscope slide or other solid surface that is used to determine protein-protein interactions.
see multiple myeloma.
protein nutritional deficiency
causes lack of muscle development, and slow growth rate and maturation. In adults there is a low milk production and poor weight gain. In severe states tissue and blood levels fall, hypoproteinemic edema may occur, and a degree of immunosuppression could be expected.
one having a ratio of essential amino acids different from that of the average body protein.
any protein located in the membrane but not essential to the reconstitution of that protein.
all the proteins present in the blood plasma, including the immunoglobulins. See plasma protein.
polyhedrin matrix protein
a protein that comprises the major component of occlusion bodies produced by nuclear polyhedrosis virus and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus; the strong polyhedrin promoter is utilized in the expression of recombinant proteins in baculovirus expression systems.
rec A protein
an enzyme that binds to DNA and plays an important role in genetic recombination.
a circulating vitamin K-dependent protein with anticoagulant effects.
proteins in the blood serum, including immunoglobulins, albumin, complement, coagulation factors and enzymes.
anaphylaxis occurring after the intravenous injection of protein.
in times of energy deficiency the animal body may raid protein stores for glucogenic amino acids, thus depleting body stores of proteins. Substances such as acetic acid which can fill the energy deficiency and avoid the protein loss are known as protein-sparing.
feeds which contain more than 20% protein.
proteins encoded by the viral genome.
the fluid containing water and waste products which are secreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder and discharged by way of the urethra. See also urinary.
increasing the pH of urine by the administration of alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate; used to increase the solubility of cystine in the management of cystine urolithiasis in dogs.
blood in urine
see urine scald (below).
see urinary casts.
see urine sediment (below).
urine concentration test
see water deprivation test.
in farm animals is observed in nutritional deficiency of sodium chloride.
measure of urine flow rates.
may be found in small amounts in normal animals. Increased amounts occur in renal disease due to disruption of glomeruli and defects in tubular reabsorption.
calcium oxalate crystals are maintained and can enlarge in urine oversaturated with these minerals.
a measure of the number of dissolved particles per unit of water in urine. See also osmolality.
calcium and oxalate crystals will spontaneously precipitate, grow and aggregate.
caused by the presence of urine in the peritoneal cavity as in rupture of the bladder.
the normal range varies with the animal species. Herbivores have a higher pH than carnivores because of differences in the diet. Alterations occur with changes in acid-base balance and infection in the urinary tract.
pus in urine
urine remaining in the bladder after urination; seen in bladder outlet obstruction (as by prostatic hypertrophy) and disorders affecting nerves controlling bladder function.
urine sample collection
midstream collection is standard; for culture the sample should be collected by catheter or suprapubic, percutaneous needle insertion into the bladder.
scalding of the perineal area, and sometimes the hindlegs, by urine. It may be the result of urinary incontinence or the animal's inability to assume normal posture when urinating, i.e. paresis or paralysis of the hindlimbs. In rabbits it is caused by poor cage accommodation and frequent wetting of the area with urine. Secondary infection of the dermatitis is common.
a centrifuged deposit suitable for microscopic examination for the presence of cells, casts, bacteria, crystals, etc.
urine specific gravity
see specific gravity.
subcutaneous urine aggregation
urine leaking from a damaged urethra collects in a subcutaneous site.