urine protein

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urine protein


any large organic compound made from one or more polypeptides, which are chains of amino acids joined in a genetically determined order by peptide linkages between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the next. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and usually sulfur, occasionally phosphorus.
Proteins form a large and essential part of the body mass, comprising especially cell membranes, connective tissue, muscles, enzymes, hormones, blood proteins. To maintain this mass the diet must contain a high proportion of protein, especially in growing animals and those recovering from debilitating diseases.

protein A
a surface protein of Staphylococus aureus which binds to the Fc region of some IgG molecules. Fluorochrome-labeled protein A is used in an indirect immunofluorescence test for detecting bound immunoglobulins.
authentic protein
a recombinant protein with all its naturally occurring properties.
available protein
the portion of dietary protein that can be used by the animal.
protein binding
a property of many drugs which limits their distribution and availability in the blood, as well as affecting elimination from the body.
protein bumps
see bumps.
protein C
a circulating vitamin K-dependent protein with anticoagulant effects. Promotes fibrinolysis.
calories derived from proteins in the diet.
protein calorie malnutrition
inadequate protein in the diet leads to impaired cell-mediated immunity, delayed wound healing and loss of lean body mass.
protein-calorie ratio
the number of calories provided from protein sources, compared with the total caloric intake; an indication of the level of protein intake.
carrier protein
one which, when coupled to a hapten, renders it capable of eliciting an immune response.
complete protein
one containing the essential amino acids in the proportion required in the diet.
protein concentrates
feeds containing a high concentration of protein, e.g. legume grains and forages, meat meal, fish meal, oil cakes, milling residues including bran, shorts, middlings, brewer's grains.
conjugated p's
those in which the protein molecule is united with nonprotein molecules or prosthetic groups, e.g. glycoproteins, lipoproteins and metalloproteins.
protein-creatinine ratio
in urine is valuable in correcting for variation in urine contents due to variable dilutions.
crude protein
the total nitrogen content of a feed multiplied by 6.25. Includes several obvious errors but is still a close approximation of the protein content.
dietary protein
is usually the most expensive part of the diet, except for animals at pasture, and the constituent most likely to be deficient. An excess of protein in the diet in ruminants can cause a sharp rise in alkalinity, due to the release of ammonia, of the ruminal contents causing ruminal atony and indigestion.
digestible protein
the crude protein ingested less the protein excreted in the feces. The estimation requires a digestibility trial involving animals.
protein equivalent
said of a feed. The total nitrogen content expressed as protein if it were all in that form. That is the percentage nitrogen in the feed multiplied by the average percentage of nitrogen in plant protein (6.25%).
protein excretion t
one that uses 51Cr-labeled protein which measures protein excretion in the feces in cases of protein-losing enteropathy.
protein-fibrinogen ratio
see plasma protein:fibrinogen ratio.
fibrous p's
characterized by shape, structure and low water solubility; they have a structural role. Examples are collagen, keratin and tropomyosin.
fusion protein
in recombinant DNA technology when a foreign gene is inserted into a plasmid vector to interrupt a gene, such as lacZ, the mRNA transcript of the recombinant plasmid contains the lacZ Shine-Dalgarno sequence and codons for the 3′ end of the lacZ gene protein followed by the codons of the foreign gene; the protein expressed is a fusion protein containing a few N-terminal lacZ amino acids and the contiguous foreign protein.
protein hydrolysates
pharmaceutical preparations used in the treatment of severe, acute protein loss. Available for use orally or parenterally. They are partly digested proteins and contain a mixture of polypeptides, amino acids and other breakdown products.
protein microarray
an ordered set of small samples of proteins immobilized on a microscope slide or other solid surface that is used to determine protein-protein interactions.
myeloma protein
see multiple myeloma.
protein nutritional deficiency
causes lack of muscle development, and slow growth rate and maturation. In adults there is a low milk production and poor weight gain. In severe states tissue and blood levels fall, hypoproteinemic edema may occur, and a degree of immunosuppression could be expected.
partial protein
one having a ratio of essential amino acids different from that of the average body protein.
peripheral protein
any protein located in the membrane but not essential to the reconstitution of that protein.
plasma p's
all the proteins present in the blood plasma, including the immunoglobulins. See plasma protein.
polyhedrin matrix protein
a protein that comprises the major component of occlusion bodies produced by nuclear polyhedrosis virus and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus; the strong polyhedrin promoter is utilized in the expression of recombinant proteins in baculovirus expression systems.
rec A protein
an enzyme that binds to DNA and plays an important role in genetic recombination.
protein S
a circulating vitamin K-dependent protein with anticoagulant effects.
serum protein
proteins in the blood serum, including immunoglobulins, albumin, complement, coagulation factors and enzymes.
protein shock
anaphylaxis occurring after the intravenous injection of protein.
in times of energy deficiency the animal body may raid protein stores for glucogenic amino acids, thus depleting body stores of proteins. Substances such as acetic acid which can fill the energy deficiency and avoid the protein loss are known as protein-sparing.
protein supplements
feeds which contain more than 20% protein.
urine protein
viral protein
proteins encoded by the viral genome.


the fluid containing water and waste products which are secreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder and discharged by way of the urethra. See also urinary.

urine albumin
urine alkalinization
increasing the pH of urine by the administration of alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate; used to increase the solubility of cystine in the management of cystine urolithiasis in dogs.
blood in urine
urine burn
see urine scald (below).
urine calculi
urine casts
see urinary casts.
urine cells
see urine sediment (below).
urine chromogens
urine concentration test
see water deprivation test.
urine creatine
urine crystals
urine drinking
in farm animals is observed in nutritional deficiency of sodium chloride.
urine flow
the rate of flow may be reduced—oliguria, absent—anuria, or increased—polyuria.
urine flowmetry
measure of urine flow rates.
urine glucose
urine hemoglobin
urine immunoglobulins
may be found in small amounts in normal animals. Increased amounts occur in renal disease due to disruption of glomeruli and defects in tubular reabsorption.
urine indican
urine ketones
urine marking
metastable urine
calcium oxalate crystals are maintained and can enlarge in urine oversaturated with these minerals.
urine methemoglobin
urine myoglobin
urine osmolality
a measure of the number of dissolved particles per unit of water in urine. See also osmolality.
oversaturated urine
calcium and oxalate crystals will spontaneously precipitate, grow and aggregate.
urine peritonitis
caused by the presence of urine in the peritoneal cavity as in rupture of the bladder.
urine pH
the normal range varies with the animal species. Herbivores have a higher pH than carnivores because of differences in the diet. Alterations occur with changes in acid-base balance and infection in the urinary tract.
urine protein
pus in urine
see pyuria.
red urine
residual urine
urine remaining in the bladder after urination; seen in bladder outlet obstruction (as by prostatic hypertrophy) and disorders affecting nerves controlling bladder function.
urine sample collection
midstream collection is standard; for culture the sample should be collected by catheter or suprapubic, percutaneous needle insertion into the bladder.
urine scald
scalding of the perineal area, and sometimes the hindlegs, by urine. It may be the result of urinary incontinence or the animal's inability to assume normal posture when urinating, i.e. paresis or paralysis of the hindlimbs. In rabbits it is caused by poor cage accommodation and frequent wetting of the area with urine. Secondary infection of the dermatitis is common.
urine sediment
a centrifuged deposit suitable for microscopic examination for the presence of cells, casts, bacteria, crystals, etc.
urine specific gravity
see specific gravity.
subcutaneous urine aggregation
urine leaking from a damaged urethra collects in a subcutaneous site.
References in periodicals archive ?
Urine samples were collected from the mice housed in metabolic cages for 24 h to measure urine volume and urine protein level.
Proteinuria was quantified using urine protein creatinine ratio, and it was observed that a significant amount of protein loss was present in the FSGS subtype of nephrotic syndrome (64.
However, there was no significant change in haematocrit, serum creatinine and urine protein between control and high risk group.
We used NS status as the dependent variable and controlled for kidney function parameters and serum lipid concentrations, including the serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, total uric acid, and triacylglycerols, as well as urine protein content.
Measures of 24-hour urine protein excretion tracked uACRs, with a mean reduction from 3,728 mg/day to 1,340 mg/day (64 % decrease; p = 0.
Despite this filtering, the most abundant urine protein is albumin, a negatively charged molecule with a molecular weight slightly more than 66.
4] Nonstandard abbreviations: SPEP, serum protein electrophoresis; UPEP, urine protein electrophoresis; MM, multiple myeloma; MGUS, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; SMM, smoldering MM; IMWG, International Myeloma Working Group; FLC, free light chain; iFLC, involved (monoclonal) FLC; rFLC, ratio of [kappa] to [lambda] FLC; uFLC, uninvolved FLC.
A separate study has demonstrated that contamination of post-ejaculatory urine by semen can result in artificially elevated urine protein concentrations in dogs.
A urine protein estimate obtained with reagent strips (Clinitek Atlas[R]; Siemens) was 30 mg/dL; however, quantitative measurement of the total protein concentration (UniCel[R] DxC 800; Beckman Coulter) of a second urine sample yielded a value of 980 mg/dL.
Secondary outcomes of efficacy will include renal function as measured by 24-hour urine protein and other clinical outcomes.