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the hydrogen ion concentration of the urine, or a measure of its acidity or alkalinity. The normal pH value for urine is 4.6 to 8.0.
the fluid containing water and waste products which are secreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder and discharged by way of the urethra. See also urinary.
increasing the pH of urine by the administration of alkalinizing agents such as sodium bicarbonate; used to increase the solubility of cystine in the management of cystine urolithiasis in dogs.
blood in urine
see urine scald (below).
see urinary casts.
see urine sediment (below).
urine concentration test
see water deprivation test.
in farm animals is observed in nutritional deficiency of sodium chloride.
measure of urine flow rates.
may be found in small amounts in normal animals. Increased amounts occur in renal disease due to disruption of glomeruli and defects in tubular reabsorption.
calcium oxalate crystals are maintained and can enlarge in urine oversaturated with these minerals.
a measure of the number of dissolved particles per unit of water in urine. See also osmolality.
calcium and oxalate crystals will spontaneously precipitate, grow and aggregate.
caused by the presence of urine in the peritoneal cavity as in rupture of the bladder.
the normal range varies with the animal species. Herbivores have a higher pH than carnivores because of differences in the diet. Alterations occur with changes in acid-base balance and infection in the urinary tract.
pus in urine
urine remaining in the bladder after urination; seen in bladder outlet obstruction (as by prostatic hypertrophy) and disorders affecting nerves controlling bladder function.
urine sample collection
midstream collection is standard; for culture the sample should be collected by catheter or suprapubic, percutaneous needle insertion into the bladder.
scalding of the perineal area, and sometimes the hindlegs, by urine. It may be the result of urinary incontinence or the animal's inability to assume normal posture when urinating, i.e. paresis or paralysis of the hindlimbs. In rabbits it is caused by poor cage accommodation and frequent wetting of the area with urine. Secondary infection of the dermatitis is common.
a centrifuged deposit suitable for microscopic examination for the presence of cells, casts, bacteria, crystals, etc.
urine specific gravity
see specific gravity.
subcutaneous urine aggregation
urine leaking from a damaged urethra collects in a subcutaneous site.