urine culture


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Urine Culture

 

Definition

A urine culture is a diagnostic laboratory test performed to detect the presence of bacteria in the urine (bacteriuria).

Purpose

Culture of the urine is a method of diagnosis for urinary tract infection that determines the number of microorganisms present in a given quantity of urine.

Precautions

If delivery of the urine specimen to the laboratory within one hour of collection is not possible, it should be refrigerated. The health care provider should be informed of any antibiotics currently or recently taken.

Description

There are several different methods for collection of a urine sample. The most common is the midstream clean-catch technique. Hands should be washed before beginning. For females, the external genitalia (sex organs) are washed two or three times with a cleansing agent and rinsed with water. In males, the external head of the penis is similarly cleansed and rinsed. The patient is then instructed to begin to urinate, and the urine is collected midstream into a sterile container. In infants, a urinary collection bag (plastic bag with an adhesive seal on one end) is attached over the labia in girls or a boy's penis to collect the specimen.
Another method is the catheterized urine specimen in which a lubricated catheter (thin rubber tube) is inserted through the urethra (tube-like structure in which urine is expelled from the bladder) into the bladder. This avoids contamination from the urethra or external genitalia. If the patient already has a urinary catheter in place, a urine specimen may be collected by clamping the tubing below the collection port and using a sterile needle and syringe to obtain the urine sample; urine cannot be taken from the drainage bag, as it is not fresh and has had an opportunity to grow bacteria at room temperature. On rare occasions, the health care provider may collect a urine sample by inserting a needle directly into the bladder (suprapubic tap) and draining the urine; this method is used only when a sample is needed quickly.
Negative culture results showing no bacterial growth are available after 24 hours. Positive results require 24-72 hours to complete identification of the number and type of bacteria found.

Preparation

Drinking a glass of water 15-20 minutes before the test is helpful if there is no urge to urinate. There are no other special preparations or aftercare required for the test.

Risks

There are no risks associated with the culture test itself. If insertion of a urinary catheter (thin rubber tube) is required to obtain the urine, there is a slight risk of introducing infection from the catheter.

Normal results

No growth of bacteria is considered the normal result, and this indicates absence of infection.

Abnormal results

Abnormal results, or a positive test, where bacteria are found in the specimen, may indicate a urinary tract infection. Contamination of the specimen from hair, external genitalia, or the rectum may cause a false-positive result. Identification of the number and type of bacteria, with consideration of the method used in obtaining the specimen, is significant in diagnosis.
Escherichia coli causes approximately 80% of infections in patients without catheters, abnormalities of the urinary tract, or calculi (stones). Other bacteria that account for a smaller portion of uncomplicated infections include Proteus klebsiella and Enterobacter.

Resources

Organizations

American Foundation for Urologic Disease. 300 West Pratt St., Suite 401, Baltimore, MD 21201.

Key terms

Bacteriuria — The presence of bacteria in the urine.

urine culture

The placing of urine in a culture medium to detect the growth of a pathogen–eg, gram-negative rods; UCs require a clean-catch, mid-stream specimen to minimize contamination by commensals on the external genitalia
References in periodicals archive ?
Otherwise, one patient with UCx but unknown symptom status at presentation returned a negative preoperative urine culture and experienced no postoperative complications prior to being lost to follow-up 7 months postoperatively.
The detection of the uropathogen by urine culture is the "gold standard" for the diagnosis of UTI.
From January 2007 to February 2008, the protocol recommended the use of antibiotics for seven days based on the results of urine culture, and the urological procedure was performed on the fifth day of treatment (group 1); from March 2008 to March 2009, the recommendation has changed to the use of antibiotics for three days with the procedure performed on the second day of treatment (group 2); from April 2009 to December 2013, the recommendation was to use a single dose of antibiotic during anesthetic induction (cefazolin as first option, ciprofloxacin as second option) without taking into account the urine culture (group 3).
Among the group who was asked to give a urine culture, 51.9% were female.
They specifically recommended decreasing urinalysis testing and increasing urine culture and STI testing.
Urinalysis was abnormal for 92% of all the women in the study and did not predict positive urine cultures. The researchers determined the positive predictive value of abnormal urinalysis to be 41% and the negative predictive value to be 76%.
The gold-standard method for documentation of bacterial infection is a urine culture. Urine is inoculated onto agar (a sterile growth medium) and incubated for 48 to 72 hours.
The objectives of this study were: (i) to evaluate the diagnostic performance of urine microscopy and reagent strip tests in detecting significant bacteriuria on subsequent urine culture, used as standard; and (ii) to see whether combinations of tests could minimise the need for diagnostic urine cultures.
After incubation, the urine culture samples were classified as negative, positive, and contaminated.
(5) recommend antibiotic prophylaxis regardless of the urine culture outcome.
Binary logistic regression analysis with forward conditional analysis showed that only TPN, central venous line, previous or current antibiotic use, endotracheal aspirate culture positivity for Candida species and urine culture positive for Candida species were included in a statistical significant model.
A urine culture was taken, an antibiotic was prescribed, and she was discharged.