urine


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urine

 [u´rin]
the fluid containing water and waste products that is secreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, and discharged by way of the urethra.
Contents of the Urine. Several different types of waste products are eliminated in urine (for example, urea, uric acid, ammonia, and creatinine); none are useful in the blood. The largest component of urine by weight (apart from water) is urea, which is derived from the breakdown of dietary proteins and amino acids in the diet and those of the body itself. Its amount varies greatly from person to person, however, depending on the amount of protein in the diet. Besides waste materials, urine also contains surpluses of products necessary for bodily functioning, such as water, sodium chloride, and other substances. Thus in a typical specimen of urine there will be sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphate, and sulfate.



The color of urine is due to the presence of the yellow pigment urochrome. Individual ingredients of urine are not usually visible, but when the urine is alkaline some of the ingredients may form sediments of phosphates and urates. The urine may also become cloudy from the presence of mucus. Persistent cloudiness may indicate the presence of pus or blood. Common causes of variations in the color of urine are summarized in the accompanying table.
fractional urine examination of a urine specimen with separate examination for different solutes, generally meaning that the specimen is tested for the presence of glucose and acetone.
midstream urine clean-catch specimen.
residual urine urine remaining in the bladder after urination; seen in bladder outlet obstruction and disorders of deficient detrusor contractility.

u·rine

(yūr'in),
The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.
[L. urina; G. ouron]

urine

(yo͝or′ĭn)
n.
The waste product secreted by the kidneys that in mammals is a yellow to amber-colored, slightly acidic fluid discharged from the body through the urethra.

u·rine

(yūr'in)
The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.
[L. urina; G. ouron]

urine

(ur'in) [Fr. urine, fr L. urina, urine]
Enlarge picture
URINE: red blood cells and one white blood cell (×400)
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URINE: Commercial testing kits contain a reagent for a specific substance. A chemical reaction with the urine causes a color change that you interpret using a color chart
The fluid and dissolved solutes (including salts and nitrogen-containing waste products) that are eliminated from the body by the kidneys. See: tables

Composition

Urine consists of approx. 95% water and 5% solids. Solids amount to 30 to 70 g/L and include the following (values are in grams per 24 hr unless otherwise noted): Organic substances: urea (10 to 30), uric acid (0.8 to 1.0), creatine (10 to 40 mg/24 hr in men and 10 to 270 mg/24 hr in women), creatinine (15 to 25 mg/kg of body weight per day), ammonia (0.5 to 1.3). Inorganic substances: chlorides (110 to 250 nmol/L depending on chloride intake), calcium (0.1 to 0.2), magnesium (3 to 5 nmol/24 hr), phosphorus (0.4 to 1.3). Osmolarity: 0.1 to 2.5 mOsm/L.

In addition to the foregoing, many other substances may be present depending on the diet and state of health of the individual. Among component substances indicating pathological states are abnormal amounts of albumin, glucose, ketone bodies, blood, pus, casts, and bacteria. See: illustration

block urine

Fractional urine.

double-voided urine

A urine sample voided within 30 min after the patient has emptied the bladder.

fractional urine

A collection of urine taken during a few specified hours or from a specified quantity rather than from the entire amount voided during a day.
Synonym: block urine

residual urine

Urine left in the bladder after urination, an abnormal occurrence that may accompany enlargement of the prostate or the use of drugs, e.g., antihistamines or anticholinergics, that prevent complete voiding of urine.
Synonym: postvoid residual
QUANTITY
NormalAbnormalSignificance
1000–3000 ml/dayVaries with fluid intake, food consumed, exercise, temperature, kidney function
High (polyuria > 3000 ml/day)Diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, water intoxication, chronic nephritis, diuretic use
Low (oliguria)Dehydration, hemorrhage, diarrhea, vomiting, urinary obstruction, or many intrinsic kidney diseases
None (anuria)Same as oliguria
COLOR
NormalAbnormalSignificance
Yellow to amberDepends on concentration of urochrome pigment
PaleDilute urine, diuretic effect
MilkyFat globules, pus, crystals
RedDrugs, blood or muscle pigments
GreenBile pigment (jaundiced patient)
Brown-blackToxins, hemorrhage, drugs, metabolites
HEMATURIA (blood in urine)
NormalAbnormalSignificance
0–2 RBC/high-powered field (hpf)Normal (physiological) filtration
3 or more RBCs/hpfExtrarenal: urinary tract infections, cancers, or stones. Renal: infections, trauma, malignancies, glomerulopathies, polycystic kidneys
PYURIA (leukocytes in urine)
NormalAbnormalSignificance
0–9 leukocytes per hpf
10 or more leukocytes/hpfUrinary tract infection, urethritis, vaginitis, urethral syndrome, pyelonephritis, and others
PROTEINURIA
NormalAbnormalSignificance
10–150 mg/day
30–300 mg/day of albuminIndicative of initial glomerular leakage in diabetes mellitus or hypertension (microalbuminuria)
> 300 mg/dayMacroalbuminuria. Indicative of progressive kidney failure. Injury to glomeruli or tubulointerstitium of kidney.
> 3500 mg/dayNephrotic range proteinuria. Evaluation may include kidney biopsy.
SPECIFIC GRAVITY
NormalAbnormalSignificance
1.010–1.025Varies with hydration
1.010 (Low)Excessive fluid intake, impaired kidney concentrating ability
> 1.025 (High)Dehydration, hemorrhage, salt-wasting, diabetes mellitus, and others
ACIDITY
NormalAbnormalSignificance
Acid (slight)Diet of acid-forming foods (meats, eggs, prunes, wheat) overbalances the base-forming foods (vegetables and fruits)
High acidityAcidosis, diabetes mellitus, many pathological disorders (fevers, starvation)
AlkalineVegetarian diet changes urea into ammonium carbonate; infection or ingestion of alkaline compounds
AnuriaComplete (or nearly complete) absence of urination
DiversionDrainage of urine through a surgically constructed passage (e.g., a ureterostomy or ileal conduit)
DysuriaPainful or difficult urination (e.g., in urethritis, urethral stricture, urinary tract infection, prostatic hyperplasia, or bladder atony)
EnuresisInvoluntary discharge of urine, esp. by children at night (bedwetting)
IncontinenceLoss of control over urination from any cause (e.g., from involuntary relaxation of urinary sphincter muscles or overflow from a full or paralyzed bladder)
NocturiaExcessive urination at night
OliguriaDecreased urinary output (usually less than 500 ml/day), often associated with dehydration, shock, hemorrhage, acute renal failure, or other conditions in which renal perfusion or renal output are impaired
PolyuriaIncreased urinary output (usually more than 3000 ml/day), such as occurs in diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, and diuresis

urine

The fluid excretion of the kidneys, a solution in water of organic and inorganic substances, most of which are waste products of METABOLISM. Normal urine is clear, of varying colour, of specific gravity between 1.017 and 1.020 and slightly acid. It contains UREA, URIC ACID, creatinine, ammonia, sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, phosphates and sulphates.

urine

an aqueous solution of organic and inorganic substances, that is the waste product of METABOLISM. In mammals, elasmobranch fishes, amphibia, tortoises and turtles, nitrogen is excreted in the form of UREA which in humans forms 2% of the urine on average.

Urine

The fluid excreted by the kidneys, stored in the bladder, then discharged from the body through the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body (urethra).
Mentioned in: Bed-Wetting

u·rine

(yūr'in)
The fluid and dissolved substances excreted by the kidney.
[L. urina; G. ouron]

Patient discussion about urine

Q. protien in urine what are the causes and preventions

A.

Q. How you stop urinating frequently? I don't have any conditions that make me urinate often. I simply drink lots of water... Is there some trick I can employ so that I can still drink lots of water but not have to go to the bathroom so frequently?

A. I only drink water and green tea, Thanks.

Q. Today doctor removed my stunt of kidney. It inflamate while urination.. till How long i will feel like this?

A. You should consult your doctor, since instruments in the kidney and urinary tracts can cause infections (even after removing them), that may cause symptoms like you describe.

More discussions about urine
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Typically, the urine is first evaluated macroscopically by analyzing its color and turbidity (cloudiness or clarity).
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for evaluating possible UTI in a febrile child <2 years of age recommend obtaining a sample for urinalysis "through the most convenient means." (5) If urinalysis is positive, only urine obtained by catheterization or suprapubic aspiration should be cultured.
The simplest way to get a urine sample is to catch the urine in some sort of container as your dog pees.
A total number of 758 urine samples of 682 patients with suspicion of UUT UC between 2004 and 2012 were retrospectively included into the study.