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calculus[kal´ku-lus] (pl. cal´culi) (L.)
an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the body, chiefly in hollow organs or their passages. Called also stone. See also kidney stone and gallstone. adj., adj cal´culous.
biliary calculus gallstone.
bladder calculus vesical calculus.
bronchial calculus broncholith.
calcium oxalate calculus oxalate calculus.
dental calculus a hard, stonelike concretion, varying in color from creamy yellow to black, that forms on the teeth or dental prostheses through calcification of dental plaque; it begins as a yellowish film formed of calcium phosphate and carbonate, food particles, and other organic matter that is deposited on the teeth by the saliva. It should be removed regularly by a dentist or dental hygienist; if neglected, it can cause bacteria to lodge between the gums and the teeth, causing gum infection, dental caries, loosening of the teeth, and other disorders. Called also tartar.
gastric calculus gastrolith.
intestinal calculus enterolith.
lung calculus a hard mass or concretion formed in the bronchi around a small center of inorganic material, or from calcified portions of lung tissue or adjacent lymph nodes. Called also pneumolith.
mammary calculus a concretion in one of the lactiferous ducts.
nasal calculus rhinolith.
oxalate calculus a hard urinary calculus of calcium oxalate; some are covered with minute sharp spines that may abrade the renal pelvic epithelium, and others are smooth. Called also calcium oxalate calculus.
phosphate calculus a urinary calculus composed of a phosphate along with calcium oxalate and ammonium urate; it may be hard, soft, or friable, and so large that it may fill the renal pelvis and calices.
prostatic calculus a concretion formed in the prostate, chiefly of calcium carbonate and phosphate. Called also prostatolith.
renal calculus kidney stone.
staghorn calculus a urinary calculus, usually a phosphate calculus, found in the renal pelvis and shaped like the antlers of a stag because it extends into multiple calices.
urate calculus uric acid calculus.
urethral calculus a urinary calculus in the urethra; symptoms vary according to the patient's sex and the site of lodgment.
urinary calculus a calculus in any part of the urinary tract; it is vesical when lodged in the bladder and renal (see kidney stone) when in the renal pelvis. Common types named for their primary components are oxalate calculi, phosphate calculi, and uric acid calculi. Called also urolith.
uterine calculus any kind of concretion in the uterus, such as a calcified myoma. Called also hysterolith and uterolith.
a stone impacted in urethra; may have formed proximally and become stuck there or may have formed in urethra; uncommon.
pl. calculi [L.] an abnormal concretion, usually composed of mineral salts, occurring within the animal body, chiefly in the hollow organs or their passages. Called also stones, as in kidney stones (urolithiasis) and gallstones. See also hippomanes.
see bronchial calculus.
mineralized deposits of calcium phosphate and carbonate, with organic matter, deposited on tooth surfaces. Found commonly in dogs and cats, sometimes in horses, rarely in sheep. May initiate caries and peridontal disease.
a concretion formed in the bronchi. See also bronchial calculus.
very small (4 to 5 mm) calculi in pancreatic ducts, rare and of no pathogenic importance.
concretions of calcium phosphates and carbonates in the prostatic ducts are rare and of no clinical significance.
white, hard, laminated concretions in the salivary duct; a sialolith. Occurs most commonly in horses.
a calculus in any part of the urinary tract. See urolithiasis.
a urolith in the urinary bladder.
pertaining to or emanating from urethra.
urethral agenesis, urethral atresia
failure of development of all or part of the urethra: characterized by complete urine retention. A rare cause of neonatal uremia.
causes a syndrome of acute urethral obstruction (below).
see urachal diverticulum.
due to trauma; occurs in bulls in which the urethra lies superficially near its end. A fistula may affect the discharge of semen from the normal meatus sufficiently to cause infertility.
a median groove along the ventral surface of the genital tubercle providing an eventual location for the penile urethra in the male.
a cause of urinary incontinence in female dogs and rarely cats.
striated muscle in the wall of the male pelvic urethra.
causes acute abdominal pain with grunting and straining to urinate, tail switching, distention of the bladder, dripping of blood-stained urine, protrusion of the penis. Eventually the bladder ruptures or the urethra perforates. Caused usually by calculus. See also urolithiasis.
occurs usually at the site of urethral obstruction by a calculus. Causes urinary infiltration of the ventral abdominal wall and terminal uremia. Called also waterbelly. Rarely the accumulation occurs retroperitoneally and is palpable rectally. See also hypospadias.
a solid cord of endodermal cells which arise from the floor of the urogenital sinus, contributing to the formation of the urethral groove.
occurs in male cats causing urethral obstruction; associated with feline urological syndrome. The plug is composed of proteinaceous material with cellular debris and struvite crystals.
urethral pressure profile
a study of the intraurethral pressure as a means of identifying the cause of urinary incontinence in dogs and cats.
urethral pressure profilometry
a measure of intraurethral pressures; used in the investigation of urinary incompetence in dogs and cats. Usually carried out with a pressure-measuring device in the tip of a catheter placed in the urethra and bladder.
the extension of the urethra beyond the end of the glans penis. In the horse it is mostly concealed in the urethral fossa. In small ruminants it is in the form of a 1 to 2 inch long filiform appendage and is easily injured during shearing, interfering with the animal's subsequent fertility.
protrusion of urethral mucosa at the end of the penis.
a synthetic conduit used in the treatment of urethral stricture or obstruction in cats, particularly following an unsuccessful urethrostomy.
proximal urethral ulceration
causes hematuria at the end of urination in horses.
see urethral perforation (above).
urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence
a cause of urinary incontinence in female dogs and occasionally cats.
caused by trauma, particularly injury associated with urethral calculi or urethral surgery. Clinically similar to obstruction except that the condition is subacute or chronic and characterized by a persistently distended bladder, dribbling of urine and the passage of a thin stream, usually accompanied by straining.