However, local studies available on ureterovaginal fistula are limited, reflected by the extent of literature available on it.
All the patients with ureterovaginal fistula diagnosed and treated at the AFIU were included.
The cystoscopy was accompanied by ureteric catheterisation, to confirm the ureteric blockade and assess its level, as seen in the ureterovaginal fistula. Under the same general anaesthesia, the patients diagnosed with ureterovaginal fistula were placed in a supine position and exploration was conducted through the lower oblique (Gibson's incision/muscle cutting incision) approach.
Ureterovaginal fistula was noted on the left side in 15 (88.2%) cases, while only two (11.7%) cases were found involving the right ureter.
Ureterovaginal fistula predominantly occurs as a result of ureteral injury during gynaecological/obstetric surgery like abdominal/vaginal/radical hysterectomy, caesarean section or anterior colporrhaphy and other pelvic surgical procedures like vascular surgery, urological surgery, including retropubic bladder neck suspensions or colon surgery.
Although gynaecological surgery is considered to be the commonest cause of ureterovaginal fistula in the developed countries, the situation in the developing countries is quite different.
An earlier study11 reported 26 cases of ureterovaginal fistula, which were mainly due to unrecognized ureteral injuries during gynaecological procedures.
The main presentation of the ureterovaginal fistula is urinary incontinence despite the normal act of micturition.