An 8 Fr semirigid 02 channel ureterorenoscope
was used in all cases.
Caption: FIGURE 2: Retrograde contrast application via ureterorenoscope
after the misplaced transurethral catheter was removed.
In lithotomy position, a guidewire was inserted in the patients, using an 8 F ureterorenoscope
, and 6 F ureteral catheter was placed.
Procedures were performed using a 4,5 F, 6,5 F, and 9,5 F ureterorenoscope
. In order to disintegrate the deposits, the Swiss Lithoclast EMS pneumatic lithotripter and, since 2009, a Sphinx Holmium-Yag laser with 18 W power, 12 Hz frequency, and 1.5 J energy and a 200 [micro]m fiber were used.
Advances in ureterorenoscope
, newer methods of intracorporeal stone fragmentation, laparoscopic methods and developments in extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy have resulted in changes with regard to the use of treatment modalities for ureteral stones.
Keywords: Upper ureter, Stone, Semirigid ureterorenoscope
, Holmium: YAG laser.
Holmium: YAG Lasertripsy with semi rigid ureterorenoscope
for upper-ureteral stones greater than 2 cm.
Holmium:YAG lasertripsy with semirigid ureterorenoscope
was inserted into the right lateral ureteral orifice via a guidewire.
In 118 patients in which there was successful introduction of ureterorenoscope
, there were stones in the upper ureter in 4%, in the middle ureter in 13.2% and in lower ureter in 82.6%.
Electrohydraulic extracorporeal lithotripter (Multimed Classic, Elmed, Ankara, Turkey) was used for SWL (in each lithotripsy session, 2.500 to 3.500 shocks were given at 14 to 17 kv), and flexible ureterorenoscope
(Olympus URFP5, Tokyo, Japan) and holmium laser (Ho:YAG Laser; Dornier MedTech, Munich, Germany) for flexible ureterorenoscopy.
Difficult case criteria were the stricture that prevents or makes difficult the passage of ureterorenoscope
in the ureter, the upper ureteric stones, previous ureteric surgery, high risk patients due to comorbidity.