The utility of cystoscopy with IV indigo carmine as a screening test for ureteral obstruction
is highlighted by the fact that most obstructions were relieved by intra-operative suture removal following positive cystoscopy.
The reason for the poor correlation between PCN and urethral urine culture results could be related to complete ureteral obstruction
, which often prevents microorganisms from travelling from upper urinary tract down to the bladder.
A radiologist and a urologist independently reviewed all CT scans for predefined criteria of ureteral obstruction
(no obstruction, partial, or complete obstruction) based on degree of hydronephrosis, hydroureter, nephromegaly, and perinephric stranding.
Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is induced in response to unilateral ureteral obstruction
(UUO), and COX-2-derived prostaglandins have been associated with the proinflammatory response, primarily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGI2, which are increased in the early phase of inflammation .
Hart, "Ureteral obstruction
in a transplant kidney caused by an ovarian tumor," Transplantation, vol.
Second, the composition of the study population may not represent all patients with ureteral stents because the majority of the causes of ureteral obstruction
in this study were from malignancy.
Aspergillus fungal balls causing ureteral obstruction
. Urol J 2009; 6: 127-9.
Bilateral ureteral obstruction
due to envelopment and compression by an inflammatory retroperitoneal process.
Through this model, one would be able to test drugs, seek biochemical markers, assess radiopharmaceutical produces, research pathological features related to ureteral obstruction
, and evaluate therapeutic methods.
Acute ureterolithiasis: nonenhanced helical CT findings of perinephric edema for prediction of degree of ureteral obstruction
. Radiology 1999; 213:663-67.
This was successfully determined during a 20-day chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction
in experimental dogs.
In case of complete ureteral obstruction
by calculus, signs of kidney damage will appear within 3-4 weeks.