Population density (persons per square mile) was used as a measure of urbanicity
and ranged from 6 to 7,287 persons per square mile (U.S.
Analyses control for biological sex, respondents' age, family structure, parental education, and urbanicity
. "Don't know" responses on parental education are included because they represent 10% of the sample.
Gender, grade level, race/ethnicity, parents' highest level of education, geographic region, and urbanicity
were weighted to align the sample with their actual proportions in the population.
School district demographics such as percent-free or reduced-rate lunch, census poverty index, and urbanicity
level were obtained from the State Education Department's (SED) school database, containing 716 school districts.
There were seven peer groups based on bed size and urbanicity
. All hospitals were reimbursed under TEFRA for 1 year only, fiscal year (FY) 1983.
The 57 upstate counties are diverse in size, population, urbanicity
, and economic base.
Age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed COPD among adults aged [greater than or equal to] 18 years increased with less urbanicity
from 4.7% among populations living in large metropolitan centers to 8.2% among adults living in rural areas (Table 1).
We also obtained 2,048 paired [PM.sub.2.5] and CO measurements from previously completed studies along with relevant information on season, level of urbanicity
, fuel type, and other energy use behaviors to conduct pooled analyses of the [PM.sub.2.5]-CO relationship for personal exposures and cooking area concentrations.
However, even holding urbanicity
and rurality constant, low-income and middle-income communities still have significantly higher odds of untimely access to PCI compared to high-income communities (OR 3.00, 95 percent CI 2.39, 3.77; OR 1.88, 95 percent CI 1.49, 2.36, respectively).
As in China, this awareness correlates with urbanicity
and educational attainment.
At the student level, these were gender, age, urbanicity
, student academic performance, 2-parent household, parental education, race/ ethnicity, and participation in extracurricular activities.
For example, Latino and white student achievement reflected similar differences based on urbanicity
, but the same did not hold true for black students.