10) In this study of 5,707 participants in the 2007-2008 NHANES, 74% had HTN, 71% had CKD stage 2 or higher, 53% were obese, 26% had diabetes, 24% had nephrolithiasis, 14% had myocardial infarction, 11% had heart failure, and 10% had suffered a stroke; the prevalence of these comorbidities were also noted to increase with the degree of hyperuricemia, supporting the notion that serum urate is related to the presence of several gout comorbidities, either as a marker of disease or perhaps by itself exacerbating other diseases.
However, if any of the comorbidities associated with gout are--to any extent--a consequence rather than a cause of hyperuricemia or gout, then our decision-making regarding the pharmacological lowering of serum urate and control of gouty inflammation ought to include an assessment of the impact of such treatments not only on gout but on these accompanying comorbidities.
Studies on the interaction of rheumatoid factor with monosodium urate crystals and case report of coexistent tophaceous gout and rheumatoid arthritis.
Study of the paradoxical effects of salicylate in low, intermediate and high dosage on the renal mechanisms for excretion of urate in man.
6) Each participant consumed 80 grams of casein, lactalbumin, or soy protein, followed by measurement of serum and urinary urate levels for the next 180 minutes.
The above studies link meat and seafood, but not protein or dairy, to high serum urate levels.
Uric acid is the main end product of nitrogen catabolism in birds and is relatively unbound to proteins in the plasma, forming urate
salts with sodium and potassium at avian plasma pH.
In 1679, Anton von Leeuwenhoek, the inventor of the microscope, first saw urate crystals, but it would be several hundred years before the great English physician Alfred Garrod affirmed that urate was "the cause of gouty inflammation.
For example, they demonstrated that the adjuvant effect of the putative urate fraction was abrogated by the addition of uricase.
Cytologic examination of the white to yellow chalky aspirate material showed monosodium urate crystals (arrow, Fig 3), which were birefringent under polarized light (arrow, Fig 4).
In theory, joints and synovial sheaths are target sites for urate deposits because the temperature is lower in these tissues than in the rest of the body, thereby lowering the solubility of sodium urate.
It addresses a high unmet medical need in an environment where less than half the patients have been receiving appropriate lifestyle advice and / or urate