, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridaemia and hypertension.
A post-hoc analysis of another RCT found that metformin reduced fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in patients with upper-body obesity
and metabolic syndrome (by 1999 World Health Organization criteria but not NCEPATP III criteria).
8,9 A small-scale study conducted in women over 25 years of age living in a low-income community revealed a higher prevalence of 42% overweight and 8% obesity among women with upper-body obesity
carrying higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD).10 Pakistan's National Health Survey (NHS 1990-94) found that the prevalence of obesity for adults between age 25 to 64 from low, middle and high SES was 9%, 15% and 27% for rural areas and 21%, 27% and 42% for urban areas respectively.11
is a key component of the IR syndrome (6).
Men often have upper-body obesity
, whereas peripheral obesity is the most common form among women.
The deadly quartet: Upper-body obesity
, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension.
For these reasons, upper-body obesity
is correlated with increased risk for heart disease, stroke, noninsulindependent diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer; however, either type of obesity increases risk for high blood lipids, sleep apnea, osteoarthritis, abdominal hernias, varicose veins, gout, gallbladder disease, and complications during pregnancy and surgery.
Lower-body obesity may be less of a risk factor for heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure than upper-body obesity
, but it's not substantially increases the risk of diabetes.
Other similarities to diabetes in Native Americans were suggested, including the influence of obesity, particularly upper-body obesity
, a westernized lifestyle, and the presence of hyperinsulinism.
These characteristics include upper-body obesity
, low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the blood, high blood concentrations of fatty compounds, and a preponderance of the small, dense form of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in the blood.
Although symptoms vary from person to person, most patients have upper-body obesity
, severe fatigue and muscle weakness, high blood pressure, backache, elevated blood sugar, easy bruising, and bluish-red stretch marks on the skin.
In the early 1980s, researchers linked upper-body obesity
to diabetes and heart disease in both men and women (SN: 1/26/85, p.57).