upper respiratory tract infection


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Related to upper respiratory tract infection: Lower respiratory tract infection

upper respiratory tract infection

upper respiratory tract infection

URI Infectious disease A nonspecific term used to describe acute infections involving the nose, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, and larynx, the prototypic URI is the common cold; flu/influenza is a systemic illness involving the URT and is differentiated from other URIs Clinical 1–3 days after exposure to pathogen, nasal congestion, sneezing, sore throat, conjunctivitis–with adenovirus infections; sore throat with pain on swallowing, fever, absence of cough, and exposure to a person with streptococcal pharyngitis in the prior 2 wks support Dx of GABHS-related pharyngitis; Pts with acute sinusitis often have fever for > 1 wk, facial pain–especially unilateral, maxillary toothache, headache, and excessive purulent nasal discharge; hoarseness suggests laryngitis; difficulty in swallowing oral secretions and stridor should raise suspicion for epiglottitis or pharyngeal abscess; influenza presents as a sudden illness characterized by high fever, severe headache, myalgia, dry cough, with lingering fatigue and malaise; elderly patients may also present with confusion and somnolence Physical exam Common cold–nasal voice, macerated skin over the nostrils, inflamed nasal mucosa; GABHS-related pharyngitis–pharyngeal erythema/exudate, palatal petechiae–popularly, “doughnut lesions,” tender anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, and occasionally a scarlatiniform rash; pharyngeal or palatal vesicles and ulcers (herpangina) suggest enteroviral or herpetic pharyngitis; pharyngeal exudates are most common in GABHS-related pharyngitis, but can be seen with infectious mononucleosis due to EBV, acute retroviral syndrome, candidal infections, diphtheria; swelling, redness, and tenderness overlying affected sinuses and abnormal transillumination are specific for, but not commonly seen in acute sinusitis; generalized lymphadenopathy with sore throat, fever, and rash should raise the possibility of a systemic viral infection–eg, EBV, CMV, HIV; Pts with influenza appear toxic and may have pulmonary rhonchi and diffuse myalgias Types Pharyngitis, sinusitis, laryngitis/epiglottitis, otitis Diagnosis Because viruses cause most URIs, the diagnostic role of lab and radiologic studies is limited; rapid antigen detection of influenza virus on a nasopharyngeal swab is indicated in cases where specific antiviral therapy is recommended; a rapid antigen detection test is also available for adenovirus, RSV, and parainfluenza virus; serologic tests for viruses that can cause a mononucleosis-type illness should be done in the correct clinical setting; influenza serologies have only epidemiologic value and should not be used for clinical care; pharyngeal swab for rapid antigen detection of GABHS is 80% to 95% sensitive and should be considered in all patients in whom GABHS-related pharyngitis is suspected; pharyngeal culture remains the gold standard for diagnosis and should be done if GABHS-related pharyngitis is highly likely on clinical grounds but in which the rapid antigen detection test is negative; cultures obtained by paranasal sinus puncture should be reserved for only severely ill patients with acute sinusitis and intracranial or orbital complications; blood cultures should be done in severely ill Pts or in those with epiglottitis or a pharyngeal abscess Management Symptomatic to relieve the most prominent Sx; rest, ↑ fluid intake are measures recommended for all URIs. Cf Acute laryngotracheobronchitis (croup. ), Common cold, Epiglottitis, Otitis media. Viral URI

cold

(kōld)
1. A low temperature; the sensation produced by a temperature notably below an accustomed norm or a comfortable level.
2. Popular term for a virus infection involving the upper respiratory tract and characterized by congestion of the mucosa, watery nasal discharge, and general malaise, with a duration of 3-5 days.
See also: rhinitis
Synonym(s): common cold, frigid (1) , upper respiratory infection, upper respiratory tract infection.

upper respiratory tract infection

Any infection of the nose, throat, sinuses or LARYNX such as the common cold, sore throat (pharyngitis), tonsillitis, sinusitis, laryngitis and croup. The cumbersome phrase is often abbreviated to URTI.
References in periodicals archive ?
The authors noted that although 92% recalled receiving one or more lectures per year on upper respiratory tract infections and 97% were familiar with guidelines related to upper respiratory tract infection, 57% would give antibiotics for acute bronchitis, 42% for purulent nasal discharge, and 30% for patients with symptoms of viral rhinosinusitis.
Therefore, one can look at Echinacea as a preventative measure rather than as a therapeutic adjunct to the care of the patient with the upper respiratory tract infection.
Only 10% of the Wellmune group reported upper respiratory tract infection symptoms (sore throat, stuffy or runny nose, and cough) compared with 29% for the control group (p value 0.
Risk of harm by not treating upper respiratory tract infections
For upper respiratory tract infections, internists and emergency physicians favored macrolides, in about 40% and 51% of prescriptions, respectively.
It is common for runners to develop upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) in the days and weeks following completion of a marathon.
24 months) and were significantly more likely to have had an upper respiratory tract infection as the initial trigger of the cough (48% vs.
Abstract: This report describes three cases of foreign body ingestion incorrectly diagnosed as asthma and/or upper respiratory tract infection.
Another investigation examined differences in upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) risk between 547 physically inactive and moderately active healthy adults aged 20 to 70 years.
It could also be an upper respiratory tract infection, as sometimes the sufferer has a lack of balance resulting from the infection spreading to their ears.
Sore throats were second, followed by acne, various trauma injuries and upper respiratory tract infection - better known as colds.
Washington, July 10 (ANI): Eating nutritious foods, especially fruits and vegetables, could reduce pregnant women's risk of developing an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), according to a new study.

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