upper lung

upper lung

A functional division of the lungs which is based on differences in:
(1) Physiology:
Upper lungs have greater mechanical stress, lower lymphatic flow, higher oxygen tension and pH; and
 
(2) Pathology:
Upper lungs are more often involved by chronic granulomatous disease (e.g., tuberculosis, sarcoidosis, silicosis), hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and smoking-related disease (e.g., emphysema, respiratory bronchiolitis, pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis).
References in periodicals archive ?
The chest computer tomography (CT) revealed soft-tissue shadows in the right upper lung [Figure 1]a with enlargement of the hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes.
A CT scan revealed he has two cysts in his right upper lung lobe.
In the chest Xray, his left upper lung field was all white, with the upper lung borders already indistinguishable because of a big tumor.
Reading of the chest radiographs was focused on extent of lung parenchymal lesion as upper lung field and both lung fields (extensive).
Typically, chest radiograph in early stage shows bilateral and symmetric micronodular or reticulonodular shadow predominantly in mid and upper lung zones with sparing of costophrenic angles.
With time, reticular and nodular opacities may appear in the upper lung fields bilaterally, being associated with further accentuation of the hilar opacities.
Only emphysematous bullous lesion was noted in the right upper lung zone (figure 2).
On examination, deep and labored breathing was observed, and decreased air entry in the left upper lung was heard on auscultation.
An x-ray of his ribs performed after a fall shows a 13-mm solitary nodule in his right upper lung.
A 53-year-old female was referred to our hospital due to a round opacity in the right upper lung field on a radiograph.
The patient's perioperative chest X-ray (Figure 1) showed a small irregular density in the right middle lung and there was a hazy increased density over the left upper lung, which was suspicious for infiltrates versus fibrotic changes.