toxin

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toxin

 [tok´sin]
a poison, especially a protein or conjugated protein produced by certain animals, higher plants, and pathogenic bacteria. Bacterial toxins characteristically do not cause symptoms until after a period of incubation while the microbes multiply, or (as happens with botulism) the preformed toxin reaches and affects the tissue. Usually only a few toxin-producing agents are introduced into the body, and it is not until there are enough of them to overwhelm the leukocytes and other types of antibodies that symptoms occur. In some cases of food poisoning, symptoms are almost immediate because the toxin is taken directly with the food. Toxins can cause antitoxins to form in the body, thus providing a means for establishing immunity to certain diseases.
bacterial t's toxins produced by bacteria, including exotoxins, endotoxins, enterotoxins, neurotoxins, and toxic enzymes. See also toxin.
botulinal toxin (botulinum toxin) (botulinus toxin) one of seven type-specific, immunologically differentiable exotoxins (types A to G) produced by Clostridium botulinum,neurotoxins usually found in imperfectly canned or preserved foods. They cause botulism by preventing release of acetylcholine by the cholinergic fibers. Type A is one of the most powerful poisons known; it is also used therapeutically by injection to inhibit muscular spasm in the treatment of dystonic disorders such as blepharospasm and strabismus, to treat wrinkles of the upper face, and to reduce anal sphincter pressure to promote healing of chronic anal fissure. Type B is injected in treatment of cervical dystonia. Called also botulin.
cholera toxin an exotoxin produced by Vibrio cholerae; a protein enterotoxin that binds to the membrane of enteric cells and stimulates the adenylate cyclase system, causing the hypersecretion of chloride and bicarbonate ions, resulting in increased fluid secretion and the severe diarrhea characteristic of cholera.
clostridial toxin one elaborated by species of Clostridium, including those causing botulism (botulinus toxin), gas gangrene (gas gangrene toxin), and tetanus (tetanus toxin). In addition, C. difficile produces an exotoxin causing severe intestinal necrosis and C. perfringens produces exotoxins causing gas gangrene, intestinal necrosis, hemolysis, cardiotoxicity, and deoxyribonuclease and hyaluronidase activity, as well as an enterotoxin causing food poisoning.
Dick toxin erythrogenic toxin.
diphtheria toxin a protein exotoxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae that is primarily responsible for the pathogenesis of diphtheria and related infections; it is an enzyme that activates transferase II of the mammalian protein synthesizing system.
diphtheria toxin for Schick test a sterile solution of the diluted, standardized toxic products of Corynebacterium diphtheriae; used as a dermal reactivity indicator in the schick test of immunity to diphtheria.
dysentery toxin any of various exotoxins produced by species of Shigella; the one formed by S. dysenteriae serotype 1 is a potent neurotoxin with hemorrhagic and paralytic properties.
erythrogenic toxin a bacterial toxin from certain strains of Streptococcus pyogenes that produces an erythematous reaction when injected intradermally and is responsible for the rash in scarlet fever.
extracellular toxin exotoxin.
gas gangrene toxin an exotoxin that causes gas gangrene; there are at least 10 types produced by Clostridium perfringens and others produced by C. noriyi and C. septicum.
streptococcal toxin a mixture of exotoxins formed by Streptococcus pyogenes.
tetanus toxin the potent exotoxin produced by Clostridium tetani, consisting of two components, one a neurotoxin (tetanospasmin) and the other a hemolysin (tetanolysin).

tox·in

(tok'sin),
A noxious or poisonous substance that is formed or elaborated either as an integral part of the cell or tissue (endotoxin), as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination of the two, during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin

(tŏk′sĭn)
n.
1. A poisonous substance, especially a protein, that is produced by living cells or organisms and is capable of causing disease when introduced into the body tissues but is often also capable of inducing neutralizing antibodies or antitoxins.
2. A poisonous or harmful nonbiological substance, such as a pollutant.

toxin

A poison or noxious thing produced by animals, plants, or bacteria. See Amatoxin, Anaphylatoxin, Bacterial toxin, Batrachotoxin, Biotoxin, Botulinum toxin, Bungarotoxin, Coley's toxin, Endotoxin, Exotoxin, Heat-stable toxin, Immunotoxin, Lethal toxin, Middle molecule toxin, Neurotoxin, Phallotoxin, Picrotoxin, Recombinant toxin, Rhizotoxin, Shiga neurotoxin, Tetanospasmin.

tox·in

(tok'sin)
1. A noxious or poisonous substance that is formed or elaborated as an integral part of the cell or tissue, as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination of the two during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
2. A common misnomer for poison.
[G. toxikon, poison]

toxin

Any substance produced by a living organism that is poisonous to other organisms. Bacterial disease is largely the result of poisoning by the toxins they produce. Some bacteria release soluble exotoxins that act remotely. Others produce only endotoxins which operate only locally. Some bacterial toxins are among the most poisonous substances known.

toxin

a nonenzymic metabolite of one organism which is injurious to another organism. see TETANUS, BOTULISM.

Toxin

A poison. In the case of scarlet fever, the toxin is secreted as a byproduct of the growth of the streptococcus bacteria and causes a rash.

tox·in

(tok'sin)
Noxious or poisonous substance formed or elaborated either as an integral part of the cell or tissue (endotoxin), as an extracellular product (exotoxin), or as a combination, during metabolism and growth of some microorganisms and some higher plant and animal species.
[G. toxikon, poison]
References in periodicals archive ?
What do they choose; disaster or what is necessary but unpalatable? Should they be opportunistic or strategic?
That means clicking works both as Mullerian mimicry (two unpalatable species benefiting by making similar sounds that predators can learn by catching either one) and Batesian mimicry (edible prey borrowing an "unpalatable" signal), says Barber.
The key to the explosion was J.J.'s admission that "a Catholic," according to Karl Rahner, "must be willing to take the most unpalatable teachings of the church seriously ...
This is an erudite and wide-ranging collection of essays that testifies to the enduring importance of Leviathan and to the rigorous (if sometimes unpalatable) logic of its arguments.
In blending religion and government at every turn, Georgia legislators are concocting an unpalatable brew.
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This is examined in the context of Bayesian and Humian criteria, and the author discusses popular fallacies in the treatment of unpalatable evidence.
But giving large companies guaranteed tariffs on public services sounds politically unpalatable?
In spite of the messages inherent in the Ramayana that seem unpalatable to the Western sensibility, such as the notion of trial by fire, the dance was a stunning display of gold and light that bent our extreme notion of virtuosity into something more subtle and exquisite.
As Reagan left office, he issued the executive order now being exercised by the present administration, giving himself and future presidents an essentially unlimited period to review records before their release, so they could invoke executive privilege to keep anything unpalatable locked away.
Traces of this unpalatable combination have been found on site, and would have provided a two-hour detoxification by prompting vomiting and diarrhoea.
One unpalatable lesson this book gently implies is that critics lacking religious experience may be "color blind" to important aspects of early modern culture and writing, to borrow a recent British historian's analogy.