Victor Turner, on the other hand, carves out a more positive space for the interrelated concepts of undifferentiation and the sacred.
Whereas Girard views the sacred as the harbinger of violence precisely because it is predicated on undifferentiation, for Turner it is only from the perspective of those invested in maintaining structure that "all sustained manifestations of communitas must appear as dangerous and anarchical, and have to be hedged around with prescriptions, prohibitions, and conditions" (109).
In practice, of course, both Turner and Girard recognize the interdependence of undifferentiation and differentiation--the sacred and the sacrificial, communitas and social structure--as an intrinsic feature of individual and group life.
A similarly dialectical, contextual treatment of differentiation and undifferentiation is, in fact, the hallmark of Carlo Levi's argument in Paura della liberta.
Levi appropriately defines the sacred in relationship to the dialectic of differentiation and undifferentiation.
This "punto di mediazione," in which differentiation and undifferentiation coexist in a creative act, takes various forms in Levi's thought.
While Turner's description of communitas here is far more optimistic than Levi's ambivalent view of the contadini as well as his conception of the sacred and undifferentiation in general, it also qualifies Girard's univocal figuration of the undifferentiated realm of the sacred as a dangerous power that must be contained through sacrificial rites.
13) For Levi, the Resistance, like the thriving artisan class of Grassano, represented a creative "punto di mediazione" between undifferentiation and differentiation capable of releasing "le nuove energie liberatrici" (De Donato, Introduction xxxvi).
Raffa's essay shows that, between the poles of sterile differentiation and sacred undifferentiation
represented by the two major medical episodes of Cristo si e fermato a Eboli, lies an ideal mediation point that Levi saw in the thriving artisan class of Grassano and that he hoped would emerge from the new values of the Resistance.