Substances such as dinitrophenol that allow oxidation in mitochondria to proceed without the usual concomitant phosphorylation to produce ATP; these poisons thus "uncouple" oxidation and phosphorylation.
Synonym(s): uncoupling factors
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There is work which suggests that using this technique can eliminate fat-soluble residues of PCBs, pesticides, and similar possible metabolic uncouplers or immunologic suppressants through the skin, especially when combined with proper transport cofactors (the antioxidants and B-complex such as that found in comprehensive formulas).
Recent studieshave shown that antimalarial drugs including CHQ decrease cytochrome aa3 and b content and adversely affect mitochondrial energy transduction in vivo by acting as uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation (102).
Bioaccumulation of Xenobiotic Toxicants * Heavy Metal Metabolic Uncouplers such as: lead mercury arsenic cadmium aluminum nickel * Nonbiodegradable Metabolic Uncouplers such as: polyhalogenated heterocyclics, pesticides and PCBs/PBBs * Enzyme Inhibitors such as Cholinesterase Inhibitors * Membrane Fluidity Interferences: solvent residues trans fatty acids
When immune responses are overstimulated or essential systems compromised by metabolic uncoupler toxins or essential factor deficits, repair is deferred, tissue permeability increases, and the immune system can access and attack structural or cellular elements (see Table 4, p.
Under such conditions, uncouplers are able to increase oxygen consumption.
The root extracts were shown to act as inhibitors and also uncouplers of the respiratory chain and inhibitors of [beta]-oxidation, and the leaf extract as an inhibitor of [beta]-oxidation and uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation.
An uncoupler is able to dissipate the proton gradient over the inner mitochondrial membrane and thereby to reinitiate the electron and oxygen flow even when the mitochondrial ATPase is inhibited.
Nitrophenols are known protonophores and have been used in structural alert models to define uncouplers (Naven et al.
Hydroxyanthraquinones have been reported to be uncouplers of cellular respiration, and their potencies depend on the number and location of the hydroxyl groups (Betina and Kuzela 1987).
We used the uncoupler FCCP to optimize the assay signal window to detect a decrease in red fluorescence (i.
This has been demonstrated by the protonophore electron uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol (117) and FCCP (118), as well as with isoflurane (102).
This is consistent with previous findings that showed that kava extracts act as inhibitors and uncouplers of the respiratory chain and inhibitors of [beta]-oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria (Lude et al.