Activity of 2-trifluoromethylbenzimidazoles as uncouplers
of oxidative phosphorylation.
, increase metabolic demand and increase toxicity (Valmas et al., 2008).
The UCP are mitochondrial carrier proteins located in the inner membrane, and considered uncouplers
, because these proteins are capable of dissociating ATP synthesis from the respiratory chain by dissipating the proton gradient.
In fact, studies have shown this ability of mitochondrial uncouplers
in somatic cells [29, 30].
Either of these uncouplers
decreased the ATP content per cell to 970% of that of untreated cells.
Louis, USA; 5 [micro]g/mL) and combination of substrates, inhibitors, and uncouplers
was sequentially injected into the chambers to measure the respiration through different segments of the electron transport system (Figure 1).
Mitochondrial ROS generation can be modulated by bioenergetics substrates such as uncouplers
, free fatty acids, or adenosine diphosphate (ADP) [34, 41, 42].
Bukauskas, "pH-dependent modulation of connexin-based gap junctional uncouplers
," The Journal of Physiology, vol.
They can block electron acceptors, act as energy uncouplers
and reduce the activity of photosynthetic pigments and enzymes (Einhellig and Rasmussen, 1979).
Depolarising the mitochondria with uncouplers
like carbonyl cyanide mchlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) cause swelling, disruption, or loss of cristae .
This has been demonstrated by the protonophore electron uncouplers
2,4-dinitrophenol (117) and FCCP (118), as well as with isoflurane (102).
This is consistent with previous findings that showed that kava extracts act as inhibitors and uncouplers
of the respiratory chain and inhibitors of [beta]-oxidation in isolated liver mitochondria (Lude et al.