umbilical cord


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Related to umbilical cord: placenta, umbilical cord blood

cord

 [kord]
any long, cylindrical, flexible structure; called also chord, chorda, and funiculus.
spermatic cord the structure extending from the abdominal inguinal ring to the testis, comprising the pampiniform plexus, nerves, ductus deferens, testicular artery, and other vessels.
spinal cord see spinal cord.
tethered cord a congenital anomaly resulting from defective closure of the neural tube; the conus medullaris is abnormally low and tethered by a short, thickened filum terminale, fibrous bands, intradural lipoma, or some other intradural abnormality. Surgical correction in infancy or early childhood is necessary to prevent progressive neurological deficit in the lower limb and bladder dysfunction.
umbilical cord see umbilical cord.
vocal c's see vocal cords.

umbilical

 [um-bil´ĭ-kal]
pertaining to the umbilicus.
umbilical cord the structure that connects the fetus and placenta; it is the lifeline of the fetus in the uterus throughout pregnancy. About 2 weeks after conception, the umbilical cord and the placenta are sufficiently developed to begin their functions. Through two arteries and a vein in the cord, nourishment and oxygen pass from the blood vessels in the placenta to the fetus, and waste products pass from the fetus to the placenta. Soon after birth, the umbilical cord is clamped or tied and then cut. The part that is attached to the placenta, still in the uterus, is expelled with the placenta. The stump that remains attached to the baby's abdomen is about 2 inches (5 cm) long. After a few days it falls off naturally.
Clamping the umbilical cord.
Umbilical cord with umbilical vein and umbilical arteries. From McKinney, 2000.
umbilical hernia protrusion of abdominal contents through the abdominal wall at the umbilicus, the defect in the abdominal wall and protruding intestine being covered with skin and subcutaneous tissue. Called also exomphalos and exumbilication.



During the growth of the fetus, the intestines grow more rapidly than the abdominal cavity. For a period, a portion of the intestines of the unborn child usually lies outside the abdomen in a sac within the umbilical cord. Normally, the intestines return to the abdomen, and the defect is closed by the time of birth. Occasionally the abdominal wall does not close solidly, and umbilical hernia results. This defect is more likely to be seen in premature infants and in girls rather than boys. It usually closes by itself. Coughing, crying, and straining temporarily cause the sac to enlarge, but the hernia never bursts and digestion is not affected. If the defect in the abdominal wall has not repaired itself by the time the child is 2 years old, surgery to correct the condition (herniorrhaphy) can then be performed.

Umbilical hernia should be distinguished from omphalocele, in which the intestines protrude directly into the umbilical cord and are covered only by a thin membrane. Omphalocele is a surgical emergency that must be treated immediately after birth.

um·bil·i·cal cord

the definitive connecting stalk between the embryo or fetus and the placenta; at birth it is primarily composed of mucoid connective tissue (Wharton jelly) in which the umbilical vessels are embedded.

umbilical cord

n.
The flexible cordlike structure connecting a fetus at the navel with the placenta and containing two umbilical arteries and one vein that transport nourishment to the fetus and remove its wastes.

umbilical cord

a flexible structure connecting the umbilicus with the placenta in the gravid uterus and giving passage to the two umbilical arteries and the umbilical vein. In the newborn it is about 2 feet long and ½ inch in diameter. First formed during the fifth week of pregnancy from the connecting stalk, it contains the yolk sac, stalk, and allantois. Also called the chorda umbilicalis, funiculus umbilicalis. See also allantois.

infanticide

Forensic medicine The active or semi-passive killing of a viable conceptus > 20 gestational wks, which breathes spontaneously. See Battered child syndrome, Child abuse. Cf Stillbirth.
Infanticide, diagnosis of  
'Hard' criteria
•  Comparison of gastric fluid composition with that of a toilet bowel-active drowning
•  Peural surfaces with petechiae Seen in induced suffocation, most significant when coupled with hematomas and petechiae on the mouth and epiglottis; the lingual frenulum may be torn and the lips bruised, indicating active attempts to suffocate infant.
•  Lungs Stillbirth lungs are not aerated and do not float
•  Edematous foam on nostrils An indicator of active breathing
•  Meconium Resuscitation of a true stillborn may push meconium into the perianal region, but extensive staining of the placenta and umbilical cord is due to antenatal stress
'Soft' criteria
•  Denial of pregnancy If the woman is obese or a dullard, she may not know she was pregnant
•  Rigor mortis A finding that is poorly appreciated in neonates
•  Impression of the body in soil, blood, or fomites, requiring diligent and timely scene investigation
•  Maceration of skin A finding typical of stillbirth
•  Putrefaction Stillborns do not putrefy as they have sterile bowels
•  Umbilical cord A cut cord indicates active intervention-time undetermined; an intact cord is consistent with stillbirth
•  Determination of age Viability, most fetuses born before 18 wks of gestation die despite resuscitative efforts, age is determined by skeletal dating, antenatal studies corroborating fetal death, eg Spaulding sign of in utero death characterized by overlapping cranial bones  

um·bil·i·cal cord

(ŭm-bil'i-kăl kōrd)
The definitive connecting stalk between the embryo or fetus and the placenta; at birth it is primarily composed of mucoid connective tissue (Wharton jelly) in which the umbilical vessels are embedded.
Synonym(s): funiculus umbilicalis [TA] , funis (1) .
Enlarge picture
UMBILICAL CORD

umbilical cord

The attachment connecting the fetus with the placenta. It contains two arteries and one vein surrounded by a gelatinous substance (Wharton's jelly). The umbilical arteries carry blood from the fetus to the placenta, where nutrients are obtained and carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged; this oxygenated blood returns to the fetus through the umbilical vein. See: illustration

The umbilical cord is surgically severed after the birth of the child. To give the infant a better blood supply, the cord should not be cut or tied until the umbilical vessels have ceased pulsating. However, in preterm infants, the cord should be clamped and cut before pulsation ceases to avoid maternal-newborn transfusion and reduce the risk of hypovolemia, polycythemia, and hyperbilirubinemia.

The stump of the severed cord atrophies and leaves a depression on the abdomen of the child (the navel, umbilicus, or belly button).

See also: cord

umbilical cord

The nutritional, hormonal and immunological link between the mother and the fetus during pregnancy. The umbilical cord arises from the PLACENTA and enters the fetus at the site of the future navel. It carries two arteries and a vein that connect to the fetal circulation.

umbilical cord

the cord that joins the embryo of placental mammals to the PLACENTA (1) consisting of two arteries and one vein supported by connective tissue. The cord is usually severed at birth, the part connected to the baby degenerating, leaving a scar, the navel.

Umbilical cord

The blood vessels that allow the developing baby to receive nutrition and oxygen from its mother; the blood vessels also eliminate the baby's waste products. One end of the umbilical cord is attached to the placenta and the other end is attached to the baby's belly button (umbilicus).

cord

any long, cylindrical, flexible structure.

angiogenic cord
the embryonic beginnings in the lateral mesenchyme of the dorsal aortae and aortic arches; at first solid they later become patent.
scirrhous cord
enlargement of the stump of the spermatic cord, common only in pigs and horses, and usually obvious within a few weeks of castration. The swelling may cause lameness, is painful and may be accompanied by systemic signs of fever and toxemia. The lesion is a mass of fibrous tissue interspersed with small abscess cavities and sinus tracts.
spermatic cord
the structure extending from the abdominal inguinal ring to the testis, comprising the pampiniform plexus, nerves, ductus deferens, cremaster muscle, vaginal tunics, testicular artery and other vessels.
spinal cord
umbilical cord
the structure connecting the fetus and placenta, and containing the channels through which fetal blood passes to and from the placenta.
vocal c's
see vocal cords.

umbilical

pertaining to the umbilicus.

umbilical abscess
see urachal abscess.
umbilical clamp
used in calves and foals for the closed method of herniorrhaphy. Consists of two lightweight bars that can be screwed together very tightly. The herniated gut is evacuated from the hernia and the clamp applied to as much of the hernial pouch as can be included. The tissue beyond the clamp sloughs and the clamp can be removed.
umbilical cord
see umbilical cord.
umbilical cord infection
umbilical diverticulum
an evagination of the bowel wall at the vestigial point of attachment of the yolk sac. Called also Meckel's diverticulum.
umbilical gas gangrene
umbilicus infected with Clostridium septicum, C. oedematiens.
umbilical hemorrhage
a specific syndrome in newborn piglets. Bleeding from fleshy navel, also from ear notching, causes fatal anemia. The cause is unknown.
umbilical hernia
protrusion of abdominal contents through the abdominal wall at the umbilicus, the defect in the abdominal wall and protruding intestine being covered with skin and subcutaneous tissue. Occurs sporadically in all species and inherited in cattle and some breeds of dogs. Soft swelling at umbilicus is reducible into the abdomen through a palpable ring. May accompany omphalitis.
Enlarge picture
Umbilical hernia in a foal. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003
umbilical hernia strangulation
the intestinal loop in the hernia becomes incarcerated with its lumen occluded and its blood supply compromised.
umbilical inflammation
umbilical occlusion
as when the umbilical cord is trapped between the fetus and the wall of the birth canal, causing loss of the fetal blood supply.
umbilical sinus
created by persistence of only the distal end of the intraembryonic allantoic stalk at the umbilicus.
umbilical tape
cotton tape, about 0.5 inch, with two selvedge edges. Used to tie off an umbilicus in calves and foals.
umbilical vein
one of a pair of veins which return oxygenated blood from the placenta through the umbilical cord to the ductus venosus and thence to the heart.
umbilical vein infection
umbilical vein abscess
residual after subsidence of acute omphalophlebitis.
References in periodicals archive ?
We're encouraged that more studies are emerging to add to the body of clinical evidence regarding umbilical cord tissue in regenerative healing," said Tom Dugan, Chief Executive Officer of Amniox Medical.
But then he was offered cells from the umbilical cords of one baby in America and another in France.
Cryo-Save, the leading international family stem cell bank, stores more than 225,000 samples from umbilical cord blood and cord tissue.
When that donor failed, I was so disheartened but doctors then told me about the umbilical cords," said Mrs Slater, who lives with husband David.
In addition, HRSA recognized that there may be special considerations associated with liability for those umbilical cord blood banks that participate in the project and invited comments on how umbilical cord banks participating in the project can best address the concerns.
STEM cells taken from umbilical cords can develop into different cells and serve as a repair system in the body.
With umbilical cord stem cell treatment, scientists in South Korea repaired the damaged spine of a 37-year-old woman who had been paralyzed for 20 years, Agence France-Presse (AFP) reported.
On the other hand, umbilical cord blood contains predominantly naive cells, which aren't yet programmed to attack foreign tissue, says hematologist Juliet N.
The discussion then expanded to include the idea of collecting umbilical cord blood, which contains stem cells.
Already inundated with decisions about delivery, an increasing number of expectant mothers are faced with the question of whether to bank their umbilical cord blood.
In these critical first moments of your life outside the womb, the umbilical cord was still providing you with oxygen as it gave you its one final gift-time to learn to breathe, fully, gently, and naturally on your own.
Here a network of blood vessels--the placenta--sprouts between uterus and blastocyst, allowing blood from the embryo and mother to meet via the umbilical cord.

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