ultraviolet therapy


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therapy

 [ther´ah-pe]
activity therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the prescription of and assistance with specific physical, cognitive, social, and spiritual activities to increase the range, frequency, or duration of an individual's (or group's) activity.
aerosol therapy see aerosol therapy.
animal-assisted therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the purposeful use of animals to provide affection, attention, diversion, and relaxation.
anticoagulant therapy see anticoagulant therapy.
antineoplastic therapy see antineoplastic therapy.
antiplatelet therapy the use of platelet inhibitors such as aspirin, dipyridamole, or sulfinpyrazone, to inhibit platelet adhesion or aggregation and so prevent thrombosis, alter the course of atherosclerosis, or prolong vascular graft patency.
art therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitation of communication through drawings or other art forms.
aversion therapy (aversive therapy) a form of behavior therapy that uses aversive conditioning, pairing undesirable behavior or symptoms with unpleasant stimulation in order to reduce or eliminate the behavior of symptoms. The term is sometimes used synonymously with aversive conditioning.
behavior therapy see behavior therapy.
carbon dioxide–oxygen therapy see carbon dioxide–oxygen therapy.
chest physical therapy see under physical therapy.
client-centered therapy a form of psychotherapy in which the emphasis is on the patient's self-discovery, interpretation, conflict resolution, and reorganization of values and life approach, which are enabled by the warm, nondirective, unconditionally accepting support of the therapist, who reflects and clarifies the patient's discoveries.
cognitive therapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy) a directive form of psychotherapy based on the theory that emotional problems result from distorted attitudes and ways of thinking that can be corrected. Using techniques drawn in part from behavior therapy, the therapist actively seeks to guide the patient in altering or revising negative or erroneous perceptions and attitudes.
collapse therapy a formerly common treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis in which the diseased lung was collapsed in order to immobilize it and allow it to rest. pneumonolysis and thoracoplasty are methods still sometimes used to collapse a lung and allow access during thoracic surgery.
combined modality therapy treatment of cancer using two or more types of therapy, such as with chemoradiotherapy. Called also multimodality therapy.
compression therapy treatment of venous insufficiency, varicose veins, or venous ulceration of the lower limbs by having the patient wear compressing garments such as support hose.
continuous renal replacement therapy hemodialysis or hemofiltration done 24 hours a day for an extended period, usually in a critically ill patient.
convulsive therapy treatment of mental disorders, primarily depression, by induction of convulsions. The type almost universally used now is electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), in which the convulsions are induced by electric current. In the past, drugs were sometimes used.
couples therapy marital t.
diet therapy treatment of disease by regulation of the diet.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) (electroshock therapy) see electroconvulsive therapy.
endocrine therapy treatment of disease by means of hormones; called also hormonal or hormone therapy.
estrogen replacement therapy administration of an estrogen to treat estrogen deficiency, such as that occurring after menopause; there are a number of indications, including the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis and coronary artery disease, and the prevention and treatment of vasomotor symptoms such as hot flashes and of thinning of the skin and vaginal epithelium, atrophic vaginitis, and vulvar atrophy. In women with a uterus, a progestational agent is usually included to prevent endometrial hyperplasia. Called also hormone replacement therapy.
exercise therapy: ambulation in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as promotion of and assistance with walking to maintain or restore autonomic and voluntary body functions during treatment and recovery from illness or injury.
exercise therapy: balance in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as use of specific activities, postures, and movements to maintain, enhance, or restore balance.
exercise therapy: joint mobility in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of active or passive body movement to maintain or restore joint flexibility.
exercise therapy: muscle control in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of specific activity or exercise protocols to enhance or restore controlled body movement.
family therapy
1. group therapy of the members of a family, exploring and improving family relationships and processes, understanding and modifying home influences that contribute to mental disorder in one or more family members, and improving communication and collective, constructive methods of problem-solving.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as assisting family members to move their family toward a more productive way of living.
gold therapy chrysotherapy.
group therapy see group therapy.
helium-oxygen therapy see helium-oxygen therapy.
hemodialysis therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as management of extracorporeal passage of the patient's blood through a hemodialyzer. See also hemodialysis.
hemofiltration therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as cleansing of acutely ill patient's blood via a hemofilter controlled by the patient's hydrostatic pressure. See also hemofiltration.
highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) the aggressive use of extremely potent antiretroviral agents in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
hormonal therapy (hormone therapy) endocrine therapy.
hormone replacement therapy the administration of hormones to correct a deficiency; usually used to denote estrogen replacement therapy occurring after menopause.
host modulating therapy efforts to control periodontal disease by directly targeting the host response; an example is the use of drugs that do this, such as sub-antimicrobial doses of doxycycline, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or bisphosphonates.
humidification therapy (humidity therapy) the therapeutic use of air supersaturated with water to prevent or correct a moisture deficit in the respiratory tract; see also humidity therapy.
immunosuppressive therapy therapeutic immunosuppression.
inhalation therapy the term formerly used for respiratory care (def. 3).
intravenous therapy (IV therapy) in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administration and monitoring of intravenous infusions of fluids and medications.
leech therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the application of medicinal leeches to help drain replanted or transplanted tissue engorged with venous blood.
marital therapy a type of family therapy aimed at understanding and treating one or both members of a couple in the context of a distressed relationship, but not necessarily addressing the discordant relationship itself. In the past, the term has also been used in a narrower sense to mean what is defined as marriage therapy, but that is increasingly considered a subset of marital therapy. Called also couples therapy.
marriage therapy a subset of marital therapy that focuses specifically on the bond of marriage between two people, enhancing and preserving it.
milieu therapy
1. treatment, usually in a psychiatric treatment center, that emphasizes the provision of an environment and activities appropriate to the patient's emotional and interpersonal needs.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of people, resources, and events in the patient's immediate environment to promote optimal psychosocial functioning.
multimodality therapy combined modality therapy.
music therapy
1. the use of music to effect positive changes in the psychological, physical, cognitive, or social functioning of individuals with health or educational problems. Music therapy is used for a wide variety of conditions, including mental disorders, developmental and learning disabilities, Alzheimer's disease and other conditions related to aging, brain injury, substance abuse, and physical disability. It is also used for the management of acute and chronic pain and for the reduction of stress.
2. in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as using music to help achieve a specific change in behavior or feeling.
neoadjuvant therapy in single-agent therapy or combined modality therapy for cancer, initial use of one modality, such as chemotherapy or radiotherapy, to decrease tumor burden prior to use of another modality, usually surgery.
nutrition therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administration of food and fluids to support metabolic processes of a patient who is malnourished or at high risk for becoming malnourished. See also nutrition.
occupational therapy see occupational therapy.
optometric vision therapy a treatment plan prescribed to correct or improve specific dysfunctions of the vision system; it includes, but is not limited to, the treatment of strabismus (turned eye), other dysfunctions of binocularity (eye teaming), amblyopia (lazy eye), accommodation (eye focusing), ocular motor function (general eye movement ability), and visual-motor and visual-perceptual abilities.
oral rehydration therapy (ORT) oral administration of a solution of electrolytes and carbohydrates in the treatment of dehydration.
oxygen therapy see oxygen therapy.
peritoneal dialysis therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as administration and monitoring of dialysis solution into and out of the peritoneal cavity. See also peritoneal dialysis.
physical therapy see physical therapy.
play therapy see play therapy.
pulp canal therapy root canal therapy.
PUVA therapy [psoralen + ultraviolet A], a form of photochemotherapy for skin disorders such as psoriasis and vitiligo; oral psoralen administration is followed two hours later by exposure to ultraviolet a radiation.
radiation therapy see radiation therapy.
recreation therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the purposeful use of recreation to promote relaxation and enhancement of social skills.
reminiscence therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as using the recall of past events, feelings, and thoughts to facilitate pleasure, quality of life, or adaptation to present circumstances.
renal replacement therapy therapy such as hemodialysis or transplantation that takes the place of nonfunctioning kidneys. See also continuous renal replacement therapy.
replacement therapy treatment to replace deficient formation or loss of body products by administration of the natural body products or synthetic substitutes. See also replacement. Called also substitution therapy.
respiratory therapy respiratory care.
root canal therapy that aspect of endodontics dealing with the treatment of diseases of the dental pulp, consisting of partial (pulpotomy) or complete (pulpectomy) extirpation of the diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty root canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive sealing material, and obturation of the canal with a nonirritating hermetic sealing agent. Called also pulp canal therapy.
shock therapy obsolete term for convulsive therapy.
simple relaxation therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as the use of techniques to encourage and elicit relaxation for the purpose of decreasing undesirable signs and symptoms such as pain, muscle tension, or anxiety.
speech therapy the use of special techniques for correction of speech disorders.
substitution therapy replacement therapy.
swallowing therapy in the nursing interventions classification, a nursing intervention defined as facilitating swallowing and preventing complications of impaired swallowing.
thrombolytic therapy the administration of drugs for thrombolysis (dissolution of a thrombus in an artery), to reduce the size of occlusion and thereby reduce damage to muscular tissue; the coronary artery is a commonly used site. Agents commonly used are streptokinase and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA).
thyroid replacement therapy treatment of hypothyroidism by administration of thyroxine, usually in the form of levothyroxine sodium. Called also thyrotherapy.
ultraviolet therapy see ultraviolet therapy.

ultraviolet

 [ul″trah-vi´o-let]
denoting electromagnetic radiation of wavelength shorter than that of the violet end of the spectrum, having wavelengths of 4–400 nanometers.
ultraviolet A (UVA) ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 320 and 400 nm, comprising over 99 per cent of such radiation that reaches the surface of the earth. Ultraviolet A enhances the harmful effects of ultraviolet B radiation and is also responsible for some photosensitivity reactions; it is used therapeutically in the treatment of a variety of skin disorders.
ultraviolet B (UVB) ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 290 and 320 nm, comprising less than 1 per cent of the ultraviolet radiation that reaches the earth's surface. Ultraviolet B causes sunburn and a number of damaging photochemical changes within cells, including damage to DNA, leading to premature aging of the skin, premalignant and malignant changes, and a variety of photosensitivity reactions; it is also used therapeutically for treatment of skin disorders.
ultraviolet C (UVC) ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 200 and 290 nm; all of this type of radiation is filtered out by the ozone layer so that none reaches the earth's surface. Ultraviolet C is germicidal and is also used in ultraviolet phototherapy.
ultraviolet rays electromagnetic radiation beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum; they are not visible to humans. They are produced by the sun but are absorbed to a large extent by particles of dust and smoke in the earth's atmosphere. They are also produced by the so-called sun lamps. They can produce sunburn and affect skin pigmentation, causing tanning. When they strike the skin surface they transform provitamin D, secreted by the glands of the skin, into vitamin D, which is then absorbed into the body. Because ultraviolet rays are capable of killing bacteria and other microorganisms, they are sometimes used to sterilize objects in specially designed cabinets, or to sterilize the air in operating rooms and other areas where destruction of bacteria is necessary.
ultraviolet therapy the employment of ultraviolet radiation in the treatment of diseases, particularly those affecting the skin. See also PUVA therapy and photochemotherapy. Among the diseases that respond to this form of therapy are acne vulgaris, psoriasis, and external ulcers.

Dosage. The dosage unit of ultraviolet radiation is expressed as minimal erythema dose (MED). Because of varying degrees of skin thickness and pigmentation, human skin varies widely in its sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation. The MED refers to the amount of radiation that will produce, within a few hours, minimal erythema (redness caused by engorgement of capillaries) in the average Caucasian skin. Dosage for individual patients is prescribed according to probable sensitivity as determined by that individual's skin type as compared to average sensitivity.
Degrees of Erythema. Minimal erythema is a first degree erythema and usually is produced after about 15 seconds of exposure to a high-pressure mercury arc in a quartz burner placed at a distance of 75 cm (30 in) from the skin. A second degree erythema results from a dose of about 2.5 MED; its effects become apparent about 4 to 6 hours after application and are followed by slight peeling of the skin. A third degree erythema is produced by about 5 MED; it may become apparent within 2 hours after application and is accompanied by edema followed by marked desquamation. A fourth degree erythema is produced by about 10 MED and is characterized by blistering.
Precautions. Ultraviolet therapy is safe only in the hands of a skilled and knowledgeable therapist. Areas of “thin skin” that may be burned more readily than that receiving treatment must be protected by wet towels or dressings. The eye is highly sensitive to ultraviolet radiation; therefore some form of protection, such as goggles, compresses, or cotton balls, should be provided for both the patient and the therapist to avoid damage to the conjunctiva and cornea.



Certain drugs, such as the sulfonamides, greatly increase sensitivity to ultraviolet radiation. All patients scheduled for this form of therapy should be questioned in regard to the medication they are taking so the dosage can be adjusted accordingly or the treatment deferred.

ultraviolet (UV) therapy

Etymology: L, ultra, beyond; OFr, violette + Gk, therapeia, treatment
the therapeutic application to the body of electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. This therapy is useful in the control of infectious airborne bacteria and viruses and in the treatment of psoriasis and other skin conditions.

ultraviolet therapy

Treatment with ultraviolet radiation.
See: heliotherapy; phototherapy

ultraviolet

denoting electromagnetic radiation of wavelength shorter than that of the violet end of the spectrum, having wavelengths of 4-400 nanometers.

ultraviolet antisepsis
because ultraviolet rays are capable of killing bacteria and other microorganisms, they are sometimes utilized in specially designed cabinets to sterilize objects, and may also be used to sterilize the air in operating rooms and other areas where destruction of bacteria is necessary.
ultraviolet irradiation
the projection of ultraviolet light from a generator is used for the treatment of skin disease and for sterilization of materials.
ultraviolet rays
electromagnetic radiation beyond the violet end of the visible spectrum (at 0.39 to 0.18 μm wavelength) and therefore not visible to humans. They are produced by the sun but are absorbed to a large extent by particles of dust and smoke in the earth's atmosphere. They are also produced by the so-called sun lamps.
Ultraviolet rays can produce sun-burning and affect skin pigmentation. When they strike the skin surface, these rays transform provitamin D, secreted by the glands of the skin, into vitamin D, which is then absorbed into the body.
ultraviolet therapy
the employment of ultraviolet radiation in the treatment of various diseases, particularly those affecting the skin, is used in humans, but not commonly employed in veterinary medicine.