ultradian


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rhythm

 [rith´m]
a measured movement; the recurrence of an action or function at regular intervals. adj., adj rhyth´mic, rhyth´�mical.
accelerated idiojunctional rhythm a junctional rhythm, without retrograde conduction to the atria, at a rate exceeding the normal firing rate of the junction; it is an ectopic rhythm located in the bundle of His and controlling ventricles at a rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
accelerated idioventricular rhythm a rhythm of ectopic ventricular origin, faster than the normal rate of the His-Purkinje system but slower than 100 beats per minute, without retrograde conduction to the atria.
accelerated junctional rhythm a rhythm emanating from a focus in the AV junction at a rate greater than its normal rate of 60 but less than 100 beats per minute; it may be due to altered automaticity secondary to disease or to triggered activity secondary to digitalis toxicity. There may or may not be retrograde conduction to the atria.
alpha rhythm uniform rhythm of waves in the normal electroencephalogram, showing an average frequency of 10 per second, typical of a normal person awake in a quiet resting state. Called also Berger rhythm. See also electroencephalography.
atrioventricular junctional rhythm a junctional rhythm originating in the bundle of His, with a heart rate of 40 to 60 beats per minute; called also nodal rhythm.
automatic rhythm spontaneous rhythms initiated by the sinoatrial node, or by subsidiary atrial or ventricular pacemakers; in practice this refers to a normal sinus rhythm at a rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
Berger rhythm alpha rhythm.
beta rhythm a rhythm in the electroencephalogram consisting of waves smaller than those of the alpha rhythm, having an average frequency of 25 per second, typical during periods of intense activity of the nervous system. See also electroencephalography.
biological r's the cyclic changes that occur in physiological processes of living organisms; these rhythms are so persistent in nature that they probably should be considered a fundamental characteristic of life, as are growth, reproduction, metabolism, and irritability. Many of the physiological processes that recur in humans about every 24 hours (with circadian rhythm) have been known for centuries. Examples include the peaks and troughs seen in body temperature, vital signs, brain function, and muscular activity. Biochemical analyses of urine, blood enzymes, and plasma serum also have demonstrated circadian rhythms. Called also biorhythms.



It has long been believed that the cyclic changes observed in plants and animals were totally in response to environmental changes and, as such, were exogenous or of external origin. This hypothesis has now been rejected by most chronobiologists, who hold that the biological rhythms are intrinsic to the organisms, and that the organisms possess their own physiological mechanism for keeping time. This mechanism has been called the “biological clock.” An example of adjustment of the biological clock in humans is recovery from “jet lag.” This phenomenon, also known as jet syndrome, occurs when humans are transported by jet plane across time zones. It is characterized by fatigue and lowered efficiency, which persist until the biological clock adjusts to the new environmental cycle.

Biological rhythms are responsive to, or synchronous with, environmental cycles, but it is generally agreed among chronobiologists that the rhythmic changes in environmental factors do not create biological rhythms, even though they are capable of influencing them. Even in the absence of such environmental stimuli as light, darkness, temperature, gravity, and electromagnetic field, biological rhythms continue to maintain their cyclic nature for a period of time.
circadian rhythm the regular recurrence in cycles of about 24 hours from one point to another, such as certain biological activities that do this regardless of long periods of darkness or other changes in environmental conditions.
circamensual rhythm recurrence in cycles of about one month (30 days).
circannual rhythm recurrence of a phenomenon in cycles of about one year.
circaseptan rhythm that which occurs in cycles of about seven days (one week).
coupled rhythm heart beats occurring in pairs, the second beat of the pair usually being a ventricular premature beat.
delta rhythm
1. electroencephalographic waves having a frequency below 3½ per second, typical in deep sleep, in infancy, and in serious brain disorders. See also electroencephalography.
2. delta waves.
escape rhythm a heart rhythm initiated by lower centers when the sinoatrial node fails to initiate impulses, its rhythmicity is depressed, or its impulses are completely blocked.
gallop rhythm an auscultatory finding of three or four heart sounds, created by gushes of blood entering resistant or stiffened ventricles. This can happen at two different times during ventricular diastole: either at initial filling or at the time of ventricular contraction. Therefore, gallops occur during early and late ventricular diastole.
gamma rhythm a rhythm in the waves in the electroencephalogram having a frequency of 50 per second. See also electroencephalography.
idiojunctional rhythm a rhythm emanating from the atrioventricular junction but without retrograde conduction to the atria.
infradian rhythm the regular recurrence in cycles of more than 24 hours, as certain biological activities which occur at such intervals, regardless of conditions of illumination or other environmental conditions.
junctional rhythm an arrhythmia caused by an abnormality in the atrioventricular junction; see accelerated junctional rhythm and atrioventricular junctional rhythm.
rhythm method old popular name for natural family planning.
nyctohemeral rhythm a day and night rhythm.
pendulum rhythm alternation in the rhythm of the heart sounds in which the diastolic sound is equal in time, character, and loudness to the systolic sound, the beat of the heart resembling the tick of a watch.
sinus rhythm normal heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node, with a normal rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
theta rhythm electroencephalographic waves having a frequency of 4 to 7 per second, occurring mainly in children but also in adults under emotional stress. See also electroencephalography.
ultradian rhythm the regular recurrence in cycles of less than 24 hours, as certain biological activities which occur at such intervals, regardless of conditions of illumination or other environmental conditions.
ventricular rhythm the ventricular contractions which occur in cases of complete heart block.

ul·tra·di·an

(ŭl-trā'dē-ăn),
Relating to biologic variations or rhythms occurring in cycles more frequent than every 24 hours. Compare: circadian, infradian.
[ultra- + L. dies, day]

ultradian

/ul·tra·di·an/ (ul-trah´de-an) pertaining to a period of less than 24 hours; applied to the rhythmic repetition of certain phenomena in living organisms occurring in cycles of less than a day (ultradian rhythm) .

ultradian

(ŭl-trā′dē-ən)
adj.
Relating to or exhibiting periodic physiological activity that occurs more than once every 24 hours.

ultradian

[-rā′dē·ən]
Etymology: L, ultra + dies, day
pertaining to a biorhythm that occurs in cycles of less than 24 hours.

ul·tra·di·an

(ŭl-trā'dē-ăn)
Relating to biologic variations or rhythms occurring in cycles more frequent than every 24 hours.
Compare: circadian, infradian
[ultra- + L. dies, day]

ultradian

pertaining to a period of less than 24 hours; applied to the rhythmic repetition of certain phenomena in living organisms occurring in cycles of less than a day (ultradian rhythm).
References in periodicals archive ?
Circadian rhythms in pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and TNF[alpha], are modulated by prominent ultradian and circadian rhythms in the neuroendocrine milieu, particularly involving cortisol, epinephrine, GH, melatonin, and prolactin.
In the rest phase of ultradian rhythm, the brain's right hemisphere is more active and left nasal airflow is superior, while in the active phase the brain's left hemisphere is more active and right nasal airflow is superior.
Greenfield's analysis of patients' healing in the four traditions in chapter 18, the final chapter, is contingent on the occurrence of this ultradian period ASC for first-time patients to a healer and his religious ceremony.
The relationship between ultradian rhythm and cerebral dominance.
Circadian and ultradian variation is a prominent feature of most endogenous biodynamic processes and has been extensively studied in neuroendocrine systems [1].
This is the 2- to 3-hour ultradian rhythm of alternating brain activity between the right hemisphere and the left.
Bipolar disorder in younger adolescents tends to be nonepisodic, chronic, and rapidly cycling, often ultradian and mixed.
If you come to see me by the time you've got ultradian cycling, you're psychotic and using cocaine, your family is disrupted, you can't think straight, and you've lost your job, I'm going to have to treat you with five or six different treatments in four or five different modalities.
Disruption of Ultradian and Circadian Rhythms of Blood Pressure in Nondipper Hypertensive Patients.
71) Ernest Rossi, "Altered states of consciousness in everyday life: The ultradian rhythms," in B.