This allows agarose gels to be elongated much farther before failure at a high strain rate, explaining the increase of ultimate strain
with increasing strain rate.
cc,u] ultimate strain
of confined concrete, [[epsilon].
This is because the reinforcement provides a continuous confining pressure around the circumference of the circular section and results in the increased concrete strength and ultimate strain
The reduction of yield stress and increase in ultimate strain
with the copolymer concentration demonstrate the plasticizing effect of interfacial agent.
decrease with the rise of filler content.
YMD, FMD, TR, US, UST and EM stand for yarn mean diameter, fiber mean diameter, twist rate, ultimate stress, ultimate strain
, and elastic modulus, respectively, in tables.
For nonlinear behaviour, it was modelled using linear stress cut-off, linear tension softening, ultimate strain
based and constant shear retention models.
was chosen as the measured response variable because an increase in ultimate strain
corresponds to an improvement in bending performance, with the highest ultimate strain
associated with the salient bending variables (Table 2), resulting in a measure of optimum bending performance.
Fatigue preloading had the effect the decrease of ultimate stress, yield stress and ultimate strain
, with the increase of loading cycles number as results from figure 2 and relation (15).
With ultimate strain
capacities on the order of several percent, steel is widely used in construction due to its good ductility in tension.
For specimens subjected to 10% of corrosion damage, UDCGFRP of 3 mm thickness increased the ultimate strain
by 55% and the 5 mm thick UDCGFRP increased the lateral strain level by 72%.
Significant structural changes have probably occurred before that point, and due to the slightly different shape of stress-strain curves of weak specimens compared to stronger specimens, a yield strain close to and even larger than the ultimate strain
is sometimes found in weak specimens.