In 1984, Chang and his companion pointed out that  the insect neurotoxin may be tyramine
, and its effect was not limited to insects' nerves.
Furthermore, another important parameter for the occurrence of these natural contaminants is pH, which was significantly correlated with putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine
. Martin-Alvarez et al., 2006 correlated the formation of BA with high values of pH in wine.
Groups Tryptamine 2-Phenylethylamine B1 3.0 ND B2 1.3 0.3 B3 2.4 ND B4 2.5 ND Sum 9.20 0.3 Mean [+ or -] SD 2.30 [+ or -] 0.71 -- Groups Putrescine Cadaverine Tyramine
B1 2.9 0.8 ND B2 0.9 0.5 0.3 B3 1.7 0.6 ND B4 4.9 0.8 ND Sum 10.40 2.70 0.3 Mean [+ or -] SD 2.60 [+ or -] 1.73 0.67 [+ or -] 0.15 -- ND, not detected.
M/Z Formula 300.2089 [C.sub.20][H.sub.28][O.sub.2] 137.0841 [C.sub.9][H.sub.11]NO 224.1716 [C.sub.14][H.sub.24][O.sub.2] 192.0270 [C.sub.6][H.sub.8][O.sub.7] 299.0866 [C.sub.10][H.sub.13][N.sub.5][O.sub.6] 304.2402 [C.sub.20][H.sub.32][O.sub.2] 124.0524 [C.sub.7][H.sub.8][O.sub.2] 223.0845 [C.sub.11][H.sub.13]N[O.sub.4] 240.0217 [C.sub.6][H.sub.12][N.sub.2][O.sub.4][S.sub.2] M/Z Metabolites 300.2089 Retinoic acid 137.0841 Tyramine
224.1716 5,8-Tetradecadienoic acid 192.0270 Citric acid 299.0866 8-Hydroxyguanosine 304.2402 Arachidonic acid 124.0524 Guaiacol 223.0845 N-Acetyl-L-tyrosine 240.0217 L-Cystine Table 7: Metabolic pathways involved in parts of differential metabolites from serums of patients with CHD and CRF showing dampness syndrome.
They are biologically active compounds with aliphatic (putrescine, spermidine, spermine), aromatic (dopamine, tyramine
, phenylethylamine), or heterocyclic (histamine, serotonin) structures.
The same company also supplied five bioactive amine standards: putrescine (PUT), spermidine (SPD), histamine (HIM), tyramine
(TYM) and tryptamine (TRM).
Evidence of horizontal transfer as origin of strain to strain variation of the tyramine
production trait in Lactobacillus brevis.
Name of the compound RT number 1 Dodecanoic acid 13.776 2 Tetradecanoic acid 16.071 3 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic 17.189 acid, bis(2- methylpropyl) ester 4 Pentadecanoic acid, 14- 17.842 methyl-, methyl ester 5 n-Hexadecanoic acid 18.176 6 Cystodytin 18.510 7 1-Decanol, 2-hexyl- 18.583 8 10,13-Octadecadienoic 19.469 acid, methyl ester 9 frans-13-Octadecenoic 19.527 acid, methyl ester 10 9,12-Octadecadienoic 19.817 acid (Z,Z)- 11 9,17-Octadecadienal, (Z)- 19.876 12 Phthalic acid, di(2- 23.201 propylpentyl) ester 13 Anthracene, 9-ethyl-9, 25.699 10-dihydro-10-t-butyl- 14 4-Dehydroxy- N-(4,5- 32.148 methylenedioxy-2- nitrobenzylidene) tyramine
(3) The third mechanism involved in this hypomotility is the role of the different vasoactive substances, such as histamine, tyramine
, and tryptamine, which are produced in the rumen by decarboxylation of histidine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, respectively.
Typical food culprits to beware of are chocolate, certain cheeses, caffeine, alcohol, foods containing an additive called Tyramine
, wheat, corn, milk, eggs and sugar.
According to PubMed Health database of the US National Library of Medicine, certain foods like avocado, food containing monosodium glutamate (MSG) and tyramine
(red wine, chicken liver) can trigger migraines.
If a person ingests other types of amines, such as tyramine
or amphetamines, there is an abrupt increase in the release of neurotransmitters that may cause dangerous adverse effects.