typological thinking

typological thinking

a CLASSIFICATION concept that disregards individual variation and considers all members of a population to be replicas of the TYPE.
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005
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As such it is concerned mainly with the past "on the principle that the past is all we genuinely or systematically know." Typology does relate to the future, and the faculties by which it is enlivened are "faith, hope, and vision." Logical, causal thinking functions in one "tense" whereas typological thinking assumes a future, and can even transcend time itself.
As Wieseltier said in an interview yesterday, "The problem with typological thinking about history is that it is the opposite of the kind of thinking that is needed for threat assessment, which has to be a solely empirical activity.
Lewalski (1979) provides an analysis of Protestant typological thinking in sixteenth-century literature, and Bercovich illustrates the influence of typological thinking on American conceptions of nation and self from the sixteenth to the nineteenth century.
He also cites Augustine's important contribution to typological thinking in the West, arguing that in his works typological patterns "become much more than merely analogical: they reveal God's redemptive purpose." Augustine, "more than anyone except Milton ...
Her poems (e.g., "A Vision of Jerusalem," "Sabbath Thoughts") and her prose (e.g., The Women of Israel [1845]) chart out difficult courses: reflecting the diminished role of women in the Diaspora while insisting on Jewish women's education to preserve Jewish culture; reversing Christian typological thinking to revitalize the Jewish origins of devotional and nature lyrics; calling the Jewish community to repentance while recognizing the constant danger of anti-Semitic persecution.
She raises significant questions concerning the scale of analysis (collating and analysing individuals of diverse geographical or temporal associations), and problems with typological thinking that sometimes underlies terms like "Melanesian," "Micronesian," and "Polynesian." These issues matter, as the underlying assumptions affect the results obtained.
The problem with the typological subspecies concept, and with typological thinking in biology, is that evolutionary theory no longer uses a natural-state model to understand biological diversity (Sober [1980]).
But this is a good example of what Mayr (1962, 1963) called "typological thinking"; hybrids are not a single class of genotypes.