typhoid


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Related to typhoid: malaria, typhoid vaccine

typhoid

 [ti´foid]
1. resembling typhus.
typhoid fever a bacterial infection transmitted by contaminated water, milk or other foods, especially shellfish. The causative organism is Salmonella typhi, which is harbored in human feces. Entering the body through the intestinal tract, the bacillus starts multiplying in the bloodstream, causing fever and diarrhea. The usual incubation period is 7 to 14 days. Later the bacilli localize in the intestinal tract or the gallbladder.

Symptoms. The first symptoms are headache, perhaps sore throat and a fever that may reach 40.5°C (105°F). The temperature rises daily, reaching a peak in 7 to 10 days, maintaining this level for about another week, and then subsiding by the end of the fourth week. Periods of chills and sweating may occur, with loss of appetite. A watery, grayish or greenish diarrhea is common, but constipation sometimes occurs instead. After 2 weeks, red spots begin to appear on the chest and abdomen. If the case is severe, the patient may lapse into states of delirious muttering and staring into space. About the third to fourth week an improvement is noticeable, and steady recovery follows. The disease is serious and sometimes fatal.
Transmission. Those who have had typhoid fever gain immunity from it but may become carriers. Although perfectly well, they harbor the bacteria and pass them out in their feces and urine. The typhoid bacillus often lodges in the gallbladder of carriers, and when the gallbladder is removed the person may cease to be a carrier. In cities, food handled by carriers is the principal source of infection. In rural areas carriers may infect food that they raise, such as fruit and fresh vegetables. When sewage and sanitation systems are poor, the organisms may enter the water supply. They can also be spread to food and water by flies that have been in contact with body waste. Contamination is more likely in regions where human feces are used to fertilize the crops.
Prevention and Treatment. Once a widespread disease, typhoid fever has now been virtually eliminated in countries with advanced sanitation. Proper sanitation involves (1) good sewage systems to dispose of human wastes and (2) proper measures for keeping foods uncontaminated. Food should be carefully protected from flies. One should wash the hands carefully before eating and after going to the toilet. Effective medicines, such as the antibiotic chloramphenicol, are available for treatment of the disease. A less serious disease whose symptoms resemble those of typhoid fever is paratyphoid fever, which is also transmitted by contaminated food or liquids.
Patient Care. Patients with typhoid and paratyphoid fever are placed under enteric precautions until the urine and feces are free of bacilli. If sewage treatment for the community is adequate, feces and urine need not be disinfected, but if there is danger of incomplete destruction of the bacilli by sewage treatment methods, such waste should be disinfected by chlorinated lime or a 4 per cent Lysol solution before disposal. Other precautionary measures to prevent spread of the disease include adequate screening of windows and doors so that flies may not come in contact with waste products.



Most patients with typhoid fever require measures to lower the body temperature when fever is extreme. These include cool sponge baths, application of ice bags, and administration of antipyretic drugs as ordered. Fluids should be forced, to prevent dehydration. The diet should consist of soft, bland, easily digested, and nourishing foods. Observations of the patient include watching for sudden temperature changes, signs of intestinal bleeding, and symptoms of intestinal perforation.

kaolin or a similar medication may be needed to help control diarrhea. If constipation becomes a problem, a low saline enema should be given in preference to a cathartic because of the danger of intestinal perforation. Good oral hygiene and care of the lips and mouth are essential, as for any patient with a prolonged febrile condition. In addition, the patient must be kept clean and dry and turned frequently to avoid the development of pressure ulcers. During the convalescent period the patient will need adequate rest and a well-rounded diet to facilitate recovery from this debilitating illness.

ty·phoid

(tī'foyd),
1. Typhuslike; stuporous from fever.
2. Synonym(s): typhoid fever
[typhus + G. eidos, resemblance]

typhoid

(tī′foid′)
n.
Typhoid fever.
adj. also typhoidal (tī-foid′l)
Of, relating to, or resembling typhoid fever.

typhoid

adjective
(1) Typhus-like. 
(2) Referring or pertaining to Salmonella typhi infection.

noun Typhoid fever.

ty·phoid

(tī'foyd)
1. Typhuslike; stuporous from fever.
2. Synonym(s): typhoid fever.
[typhus + G. eidos, resemblance]
References in periodicals archive ?
People also need to be educated about the symptoms of the typhoid which include high-grade fever, weakness, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, cough and loss of appetite so that they could timely consult their doctors.
For the uninitiated, typhoid patients continuously shed typhoid bacteria in their feces.
According to experts, expanding coverage of TCV through routine immunisation would reduce disease incidence and potentially decrease the need for antibiotics two priorities of the effort to stem the development and spread of drug-resistant typhoid.
She frequently shifted employers and caused multiple typhoid outbreaks, before being arrested again in 1915 and placed under life-time isolation on North Brother Island.
The Vice Chancellor LUMHS admitted this while talking to media persons here at Hyderabad Press Club on Friday after leading awareness walk on the start of third week of awareness campaign against XDR Typhoid.
In one study typhoid fever affected 54.64% females, 13.4% pediatric population and its overall incidence in age group of 13-40 years was 74.23%5.
Salma Shaikh and other officers of the concerned departments discussed at length the causes of prevailing XDR Typhoid in Hyderabad and precautionary measures to prevent this virus.
In the present scenario, thanks to prompt action taken by the World Health Organization and authorities in Pakistan, a safe new conjugate vaccine against typhoid has been approved, and an emergency campaign was conducted in Hyderabad to vaccinate all children below 5 years of age.4 Significantly, the vaccine is being incorporated in Pakistan's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule.1 While these efforts are appreciated, any immunization strategy will face several challenges.
One such measure that was informed by the epidemiologic data is a Gavi-funded* vaccination campaign using typhoid conjugate vaccine scheduled for January- February 2019, targeting 350,000 persons; this is the first use of typhoid conjugate vaccine and the first outbreak response vaccination campaign in Africa.
He explained Typhoid fever is usually diagnosed via blood culture, where a sample of blood is taken from the patient and smeared on a culture plate, where, if infected, Salmonella typhi will grow.
We conducted a retrospective case series including all adult patients ([greater than or equal to] 15 years) diagnosed with typhoid fever who received treatment at Hamad General Hospital (HGH) and Alkhor Hospital, Qatar, between January 2005 and December 2012.
In our study 75 (41.7%) children were undernourished and none was vaccinated against typhoid. Out of 180 patients 58 (32.2%) patients were with complication while 122 were without (67.8%).