immune complex disease

(redirected from type III hypersensitivity reaction)
Also found in: Encyclopedia.

immune

 [ĭ-mūn´]
1. being highly resistant to a disease because of the formation of humoral antibodies or the development of immunologically competent cells, or both, or as a result of some other mechanism, as interferon activities in viral infections.
2. characterized by the development of humoral antibodies or cellular immunity, or both, following antigenic challenge.
3. produced in response to antigenic challenge, as immune serum globulin.
immune response the reaction to and interaction with substances interpreted by the body as not-self, the result being humoral and cellular immunity. Called also immune reaction. The immune response depends on a functioning thymus and the conversion of stem cells to B and T lymphocytes. These lymphocytes contribute to antibody production, cellular immunity, and immunologic memory.
Disorders of the Immune Response. Pathologic conditions associated with an abnormal immune response (immunopathy) may result from (1) immunodepression, that is, an absent or deficient supply of the components of either humoral or cellular immunity, or both; (2) excessive production of gamma globulins; (3) overreaction to antigens of extrinsic origin, that is, antigens from outside the body; and (4) abnormal response of the body to its own cells and tissues.

Those conditions arising from immunosuppression include agammaglobulinemia (absence of gamma globulins) and hypogammaglobulinemia (a decrease of circulating antibodies). Factors that may cause or contribute to suppression of the immune response include (1) congenital absence of the thymus or of the stem cells that are precursors of B and T lymphocytes; (2) malnutrition, in which there is a deficiency of the specific nutrients essential to the life of antibody-synthesizing cells; (3) cancer, viral infections, and extensive burns, all of which overburden the immune response mechanisms and rapidly deplete the supply of antigen-specific antibody; (4) certain drugs, including alcohol and heroin, some antibiotics, antipsychotics, and the antineoplastics used in the treatment of cancer.

Overproduction of gamma globulins is manifested by an excessive proliferation of plasma cells (multiple myeloma). hypersensitivity is the result of an overreaction to substances entering the body. Examples of this kind of inappropriate immune response include hay fever, drug and food allergies, extrinsic asthma, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis.

Autoimmune diseases are manifestations of the body's abnormal response to and inability to tolerate its own cells and tissues. For reasons not yet fully understood, the body fails to interpret its own cells as self and, as it would with other foreign (not-self) substances, utilizes antibodies and immunologically competent cells to destroy and contain them.
immune system a complex system of cellular and molecular components whose primary function is distinguishing self from nonself and defense against foreign organisms or substances; see also immune response. The primary cellular components are lymphocytes and macrophages, and the primary molecular components are antibodies and lymphokines; granulocytes and the complement system are also involved in immune responses but are not always considered part of the immune system per se.
Major organs and tissues of the immune system in the child. From McKinney et al., 2000.
immune complex disease local or systemic disease caused by the formation of circulating antibody-antigen immune complexes and their deposition in tissue, due to activation of complement and to recruitment and activation of leukocytes in type III hypersensitivity reactions.

im·mune com·plex dis·ease

an immunologic category of diseases evoked by the deposition of antigen-antibody in the microvasculature. Complement is frequently involved and the breakdown products of complement attract polymorphonuclear leukocytes to the site of deposition. Damage to tissue is frequently caused by "frustrated" phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells. Vasculitis or nephritis is common. Other clinical manifestations include fever, arthralgias, and cutaneous eruptions. Arthus phenomenon and serum sickness are classic examples, but many other disorders, including most of the connective tissue diseases, may belong in this immunologic category. Immune complex diseases can also occur during a variety of diseases of known etiology, such as subacute bacterial endocarditis.
See also: autoimmune disease, immune complex.

immune complex disease

Immunology Any of a number of conditions—caused by circulating antigen-antibody-immune complexes, which in the face of mild antigen excess, lodge in small vessels and filtering organs of the circulation Clinical Fever, enlarged and/or tender joints, splenic congestion, proteinuria due to glomerular IC deposition, eosinophilia, hypocomplementemia, lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis–HTN, oliguria, hematuria, edema, skin–purpura, urticaria, ulcers, carditis, hepatitis, myositis, necrotizing vasculitis. See Immune complex.
Immune complex disease
Arthus reaction Acute hemorrhagic necrosis that follows re-exposure to an antigen, which attracts PMNs, activates complement, binds ICs by the Fc receptor, causing phagocytosis, ↑ production of chemotactic factors, especially C5b67 and ↑ anaphylotoxins C3a and C5a, resulting in vasodilation
Serum sickness A reaction that is milder than the Arthus reaction, occurring 8-12 days after exposure to the antigen, at the time of 'equivalence' (antigen and antibody are in a 1:1 ratio), after injection of a foreign protein mixture, eg horse serum for antitoxin to tetanus  

im·mune com·plex dis·ease

(i-myūn' kom'pleks di-zēz')
Immunologic category of diseases evoked by the deposition of antigen-antibody or antigen-antibody-complement complexes on cell surfaces, with subsequent development of vasculitis; nephritis is common. Most of the connective tissue diseases may belong in this immunologic category; immune complex diseases can also occur during a variety of diseases of known etiology, such as subacute bacterial endocarditis.
See also: autoimmune disease

im·mune com·plex dis·ease

(i-myūn' kom'pleks di-zēz')
Immunologic category of diseases evoked by the deposition of antigen-antibody in the microvasculature. Complement is frequently involved and the breakdown products of complement attract polymorphonuclear leukocytes to site of deposition. Damage to tissue is frequently caused by "frustrated" phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear cells. Immune complex diseases can also occur during a variety of diseases of known etiology, such as subacute bacterial endocarditis.
See also: autoimmune disease
References in periodicals archive ?
Lepromatous leprosy borderline lepromatous leprosy and mid borderline leprosy are included in the multibacillary types.5 The 2 common types of leprosy reactions type 1 or reversal reaction is mediated by an upgrade in cellular immune response to the bacterium and type 2 is a type III hypersensitivity reaction characterized by erythema nodosum leprosum.67 Nerve damage may occur early in tuberculoid disease but tends to be more insidious in lepromatous leprosy.
Although limited data exists about methods for the detection of type III hypersensitivity reactions, some suggest that serum IgG antibody testing can be utilized (Shamberger 2008; Stapel et al.