Biomarker data are consistent with the mechanism of action of SD-101 and demonstrate strong immunomodulation of the tumor microenvironment including infiltration of activated T cells and upregulation of Type I and Type II Interferon
. Importantly, similar to what was reported for melanoma patients who had not received anti-PD-1 therapy, patients whose tumors exhibited an immunologically cold tumor microenvironment at baseline showed clinical response during SD-101 plus pembrolizumab treatment.
Impaired expression of type I and type II interferon
receptors in HCV-associated chronic liver disease and liver cirrhosis.
While all viruses trigger a cytokine response in the body, Halstead said influenza tends to create a surge in a particular cytokine called type II interferon
, which may be why influenza can be worse than other such viruses as rhinovirus or respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).
Chan et al., "Selective activation of type II interferon
signaling by Zika virus NS5 protein," Journal of Virology, vol.
A possible explanation is that STAT2 is a part only of type I interferon pathway, while STAT1 is a part in both type I and type II interferon pathways.
Type II interferons, specifically interferon gamma, are typically associated with a Th1 response.
The molecular mechanisms underlying type I and type II interferon functioning are actually more distinct than we previously imagined.
They found that when the assembly of STAT1 chains was inhibited, type I interferons responsible for protecting against viruses such as vesicular stomatitis virus were unaffected, whereas type II interferons, which protect against bacterial infections such as listeria, no longer functioned effectively.
By combining type I and type II interferons
, Grubman produced another patented antiviral vaccine-delivery technology that rapidly blocks FMD virus in pigs.
Huang, P Li et al., "Vaccinia virus blocks Stat1dependent and Stat1-independent gene expression induced by type I and type II interferons
," Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol.
Ernst, "Dynamic roles of type I and type II interferons
in early infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis," Journal of Immunology, vol.