Carpinus and Ostiya have also evolved vessels with simple perforations and wood with tyloses
can be seen in the pores of the white oak sample (left).
Both red and white oak lumber can be used in many of the same products, though red oak is not recommended for tight cooperage due to the lack of tyloses
. Both red and white oak also can be quartersawn and they work well in a variety of styles including Shaker, Mission and contemporary styles.
, deposits or gum were found in the vessels of almost all of the angiosperm species (Table 3).
Abbreviations used in the figures in this study: 1 = primary xylem; 2 = secondary xylem (wood); A = aperture of bordered pit; C = vascular cambium; M margo; MX = metaxylem; P = pith; PB = pit border; PH = phloem; PM = bordered pit membrane; PX = protoxylem; R = ray; S sclereids; T = torus; TR = tracheid; TY = tyloses
; V = vessel member.
When vessels are blocked by tyloses
(Fig 2) or by extraneous deposits, penetration may occur through such prosenchymatous tissues since fibres are more important in preservative movement than wide rays in a way that they occur in oak and Beech wood.
Dysfunction of the water-conducing system (Hopkins, 1989), caused by vascular occlusions (bacterial aggregates, host gum, and tyloses
), phytotoxin (Mircetich et al., 1976; Lee et al., 1982) and growth regulator imbalances (French and Kitajima, 1978) were proposed mechanisms of pathogenesis.
The vessels were thick walled, wide circular, with abundant tyloses
occurring in clusters.
With its distinctive, water-tight properties due to its tyloses
, white oak also is highly popular for cooperage, where it is used to make staves for whiskey, wine and beer barrels.
Wall 1: Xylem vessels immediately above and below an injury plug with crystal-like tyloses
and chemicals when a tree is injured.
However, the plugging of xylem vessels by plant tyloses
and/or xylem vessel plugging by aggregates derived from plant and fungal macromolecules may also cause or contribute to leaf symptoms (Bozzola et al., 1986).
Along with longitudinal tracheids, other microscopic diffusion paths occur, although they are often blocked by tyloses
, gummy deposits, and bordered pits (Stone and Forder-renther 1956).