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tur·pen·tine oil(tŭr'pen-tīn oyl),
A volatile oil, distilled from turpentine, which has been used as a diuretic, carminative, vermifuge, expectorant, rubefacient, and counterirritant.
1. an unctuous, combustible substance that is liquid, or easily liquefiable, on warming, and is not miscible with water, but is soluble in ether. Such substances, depending on their origin, are classified as animal, mineral or vegetable oils.
2. a fat that is liquid at room temperature.
see sump oil.
oil of chenopodium
extracted from the plant Chenopodium ambrosioides. An old-time anthelmintic.
the coating of spilled crude oil on waterbirds that destroys the waterproofing and insulating properties of their feathers, predisposing them to hypothermia and impairing flight and swimming abilities. It also blocks nares, causes aspiration pneumonia, and has toxic effects on kidneys, reproduction and the gastrointestinal tract.
crops grown primarily for their oil production, e.g. linseed, safflower, sunflower, rapeseed.
crude petroleum oil
crude oil and its several distillates are all relished by cattle and can cause poisoning. The oil as it is extracted from subterranean deposits varies widely in its additional contents. These may be salt or sulfur and cause poisoning by those substances. Oil causes vomiting and death from aspiration pneumonia. Animals do not do well and oil stays in the gut, appearing in the feces for long periods.
diesel and fuel oil
see crude oil.
called also ethereal oil; see volatile oil (below).
see volatile oil (below).
an oil that does not evaporate on warming and occurs as a solid, semisolid or liquid.
see uropygial glands.
occurs in plants; causes gastroenteritis; includes bryonin, croton and castor oils.
a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons from petroleum. Mineral oil is available in both light (light liquid petrolatum) and heavy (liquid, or heavy liquid, petrolatum) grades. Light mineral oil is used chiefly as a vehicle for drugs, though it may also be used as a cathartic and to cleanse the skin. Heavy mineral oil is used as a cathartic, solvent and oleaginous vehicle. Excessive intake over a long period results in hypovitaminosis A.
aquatic birds are worst affected because of pasting together of feathers, poisoning because of contamination of food source, blocking of nares and eyes and starvation because of unpalatability of food supply.
includes kerosene (or kerosine, or paraffin), gasoline (or petrol), diesoline and additives to lubricating oils, e.g. highly chlorinated naphthalenes; any of them may cause poisoning.
accidental or negligent discharge of industrial oil on a body of water; effect is that the oil floats and pollutes the shore and covers aquatic birds and mammals with fatal results in most cases; salvage depends on capture of affected birds and animals and removing the oil.
see sump oil.
sweet birch oil
see methyl salicylate.
see turpentine oil.
an oil that evaporates readily; such oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics.
oil of Wintergreen
see methyl salicylate.
an irritant oil in Taxus baccata, but not the principal irritant in that plant—taxine is.
a sticky oleoresin which exudes from Pinus spp. trees.
commercial extract from turpentine used as a solvent for waxes and varnishes. The active constituents are terpenes, α-pinene being the important one. In veterinary medicine has been used as a treatment for bloat in cattle and tympanitic colic in horses and as a constituent of general tonic drenches for cattle. Also has some use in stimulant ointments and liniments. Absorbed readily from the gut and the skin and is a significant poison for the kidney and intestine. Clinical signs of acute poisoning include colic, vomiting, diarrhea, incoordination and excitement followed by coma.