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With respect to the rearing method, the nymphs of the first instar were more sensitive: they presented 37% higher survival when the leaves' turgescence was maintained by a layer of agar (Table 1), which made the leaves more tender and consequently made it easer for the nymphs to find the food site.
A four-category rating scale was designed for assessing senescence symptoms (SS) or chilling injury symptoms (IS): Grade 4 -- inflorescence with natural brightness and no brownish wilting areas at the apex of the bracts (SS) or spotless bracts (IS); Grade 3 -- inflorescence with natural brightness and brownish wilting areas less than 1.0 cm from the apex of the bracts (SS) or bracts slightly spotted (IS); Grade 2 -- bracts with brownish wilting areas between 1.0 and 5.0 cm from the apex of the bracts (SS) or bracts with dark spots (IS); and Grade 1 -- inflorescence no turgescence, no natural brightness and with brownish wilting areas more than 5.0 cm from the apex of the bracts (SS) or bracts with intense dark spots (IS).
For many physiological processes such as activation of enzymes, photosynthesis, maintenance of turgescence, translocation of photosynthates, K is essential element (Mengel and Kirkby, 2001).
However, shading likely have controlled leaf temperature and, consequently, the water status of the plant, in order to allow an optimization of photosynthetic activity and turgescence, which are necessary to plant growth.